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       EPOXY FORMULATIONS
USING JEFFAMINE® POLYETHERAMINES



April 27, 2005

Authors:

Bruce Burton
David Alexander
Howard Klein
Angela Garibay-Vasquez
Alan Pekarik
Chris Henkee
1. Introduction
Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................1
2. WHY JEFFAMINE® AMINE CURING AGENTS? ..................................................................................................2
3. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE JEFFAMINE┬« POLYETHEREAMINES (PEAÔÇÖs) ...................................................3
4. JEFFAMINE® PEA AS EPOXY CURING AGENTS ..............................................................................................7
5. JEFFAMINE® PEA ACCELERATION OF CURE ................................................................................................15
6. SURFACE COATING FORMULATIONS .............................................................................................................23
7. FLOORING, TROWELING AND MORTARS .......................................................................................................29
8. REINFORCED COMPOSITES.............................................................................................................................37
9. CASTING AND ENCAPSULATION......................................................................................................................40
10. ADHESIVES .......................................................................................................................................................42
11. CURED PROPERTIES REFERENCE GUIDE...................................................................................................43
12. HANDLING AND STORAGE..............................................................................................................................57
13. TOXICITY AND SAFETY ...................................................................................................................................58
14. SHIPPING INFORMATION ................................................................................................................................59
15. HUNTSMAN CORPORATION PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO EPOXIES......................................................60
16. BIBLIOGRAPHY-JEFFAMINE® PEA APPLICATIONS .....................................................................................61
1. Introduction

1. INTRODUCTION

The JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramines (PEAs) described in this brochure are the result of years of research and
development carried out since the 1960's by the Texaco Chemical Company. Development of new JEFFAMINE®
polyetheramine products continues to be the focus of the Huntsman Corporation today. Because of their unique
structure and variety of chemical reactions, these products have found their way into many different end uses.

The purpose of this brochure is to present detailed technical formulation information primarily about four of the
commercial JEFFAMINE® products: JEFFAMINE® D-230, D-400, D-2000, and T-403 amines, and to highlight their
uses as curing agents for epoxy resins. Additional technical data on XTJ-504, XTJ-590, XTJ-506, HK-511 and BA-509
will also be highlighted.

We believe that the information in this brochure is correct, but no guarantee with respect to accuracy, completeness,
or results is expressed or implied. The end uses mentioned are given for purposes of illustration, and the systems
outlined should be viewed as "starting formulations" only. We urge you to conduct sufficient testing of any formulation
before putting it into commercial use.

We hope that you will find this information both interesting and useful. For the latest information on all JEFFAMINE®
polyetheramine products, both commercial materials and those under development, contact one of our service
locations listed on the inside of the back cover.



HUNTSMAN ÔÇ? ÔÇťYour Amine TeamÔÇŁÔäó

ÔÇ? Huntsman has provided over thirty years of service to the epoxy industry.

ÔÇ? Huntsman invented and commercialized the JEFFAMINE┬« PEA amine curing
agents.

ÔÇ? Huntsman provides the most extensive range of polyetheramines ÔÇ? many
which are unavailable anywhere else.

ÔÇ? Huntsman provides experienced technical support by virtue of having worked
with these materials from their inception. If you have a problem, we likely
have an answer.

ÔÇ? HuntsmanÔÇÖs core competencies include alkoxylation and amination
technologies, this means that the JEFFAMINE® amines are just part of a
broad and diverse product portfolio.

ÔÇ? Huntsman produces the JEFFAMINE┬« amines in modern facilities located
around the world.

ÔÇ? Huntsman works with our customers to develop new and unique products.




1
2. Why JEFFAMINE® Amine Curing Agents

2. WHY JEFFAMINE® AMINE CURING AGENTS?

The JEFFAMINE® amines, with their poly-ether containing backbone represent unique curing agents that result in
properties that are often unobtainable with any other curing agents.

The unique characteristics of the JEFFAMINE® amines include:

WATER-WHITE IN COLOR: These make them ideal for use in decorative coatings and castings, as well as other
applications requiring clarity and transparency.

FLEXIBLE BACKBONE: The cured epoxy will be somewhat flexible exhibiting high elongation, high impact strength
and good low temperature properties. This is important in a variety of applications such as coatings that require chip
resistance, coatings that are applied to materials of differing coefficient of expansion; or in composite/tooling
applications where repetitive flexing or compression may be encountered.

LOW VISCOSITY: The low viscosities of these materials make them ideal in casting and self leveling applications. In
addition, the low viscosities makes them the ideal to blend with other high-viscosity curing agents which otherwise
could not be used. LOW VISCOSITY OFTEN TRANSLATES TO LOW V.O.C.

CONTROLABLE REACTIVITY: The JEFFAMINE® amines product line spans the spectrum in terms of product
reactivity. For example the slower hindered products allow for a moderate pot life, important in leveling and
composite applications. In addition, the low exotherm of these slower materials allows the casting of larger and
thicker parts.

GOOD HEALTH & SAFETY PROFILE: Compared to many of the epoxy hardeners currently used, the majority of the
JEFFAMINE® amines are relatively innocuous and easy to handle.

JEFFAMINE® amine application advantages

The above characteristics translate into specific advantages in a number of applications. For example, consider the
following applications and the advantages of using the JEFFAMINE® amine curing agents:

Application Advantage of a JEFFAMINE® amine hardener
Protective coatings -good wetting
-low viscosity formulations, allow for low VOCÔÇÖs and are easy to apply
-flexibility upon cure, resists chipping and nicking
-flexibility allows good performance when substrate expands/contracts
due to temperature excursions (resists delamination)
Decorative coatings -water white
-good wetting
-low viscosity means good flow and leveling
-flexibility upon cure means flexible substrates can be coated
Flooring -low viscosity means good self-leveling
-low viscosity allows high loading
-flexibility upon cure, resists chipping and nicking
-good wetting means aggregates can easily be added
Casting/Encapsulation -low viscosity allows good mold flow
-good wet-out
-moderate reactivity means large parts can be processed
Composites -moderate pot life means long working time
-flexibility means reduced cyclic micro-cracking
-good wet-out of fibers




2
3. Characteristics of the JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramines

3. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE JEFFAMINE┬« POLYETHEREAMINES (PEAÔÇÖs)

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

The JEFFAMINE┬« PEAÔÇÖs make up a family of products having repeating polyether backbone structures. Four of the
commercial products in the family contain repeating oxypropylene units.


CH3

OCH2-CH
The structures are functionally terminated with primary amine groups positioned on secondary carbon atoms. The
basic polyetheramine frame structure is indicated below. By varying the ÔÇťXÔÇ? and ÔÇťRÔÇ? groups the JEFFAMINE┬« PEA
series was developed.

X R
D-230 1-2 CH3 CH3 R CH3
D-400 4-5 CH3
D-2000 32 CH3
NH2
CHCH2O ( H2CHO )
H2N XCH2CH
HK-511 2 H
XTJ-504 TEG H
XTJ-590 EG H


JEFFAMINE® T-403 and BA-509 are trifunctional (three amine groups per molecule) and can be represented by the
following general formula.
CH3

(OCH2CH ) yNH2
Initiator Mw x+y+z
T-403 TMP 400 5.3
BA-509 Glycerin 3000 49 CH3
(CH2)n
CH3

H2N ( CHCH2O ) xCH2 CH2 ( OCH2CH )
C zNH2


R

The letter following the JEFFAMINE® trade name (D or T) represents the functionality (di- or tri-) of a given product,
while the number designates the approximate average molecular weight. Thus, D-400 represents a diamine of about
400 molecular weight. BA-509 and HK-511 do not follow this convention. All XTJ-products indicate experimental
JEFFAMINE® products, many of which have reached full commercial status.

Note that the primary amine groups in these products are attached to secondary carbon atoms. Thus, the amine
nitrogen is sterically hindered in nucleophilic reactions by the pendant methyl group. The JEFFAMINE® PEA
therefore exhibit "moderate" reactivity -- a desirable feature in many epoxy applications.

~CH-NH2

CH3



3
3. Characteristics of the JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramines
Table 3.1 - Typical Physical Properties and Sales Specifications of JEFFAMINE® PEAs

Test
Typical Properties
Method
Property D-230 D-400 D-2000 T-403 XTJ-504 XTJ-590 XTJ-506 HK-511 BA-509
Color, Pt-Co 30 50 100 30 10 20 12 20 10
Brookfield viscosity, cps, 25oC 9 21 247 70 8 9 Solid, mp 10 398
o 0
(77 F) ~30 C
Specific gravity, 20/20oC 09844
0.9480 0.9702 0.9964 0.9812 1.01 0.99 1.0694 1.002
Density , lb/gal, 20oC 79 8.1 8.3 8.2 8.43 8.38 8.92 8.244 8.337
Refractive index, n20 1.4466 1.4482 1.4514 1.4606 1.4586 - - - -
Flash point, PMCC, oC (oF) 121(250) 163(325) 185(365) 196(385) 129(265) 105(221) 98(208) 138(280) 235(455)
Water, wt. % 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.15 0.1
Total acetylatables, meq/g 8.7 4.6 1.05 6.8 13.5 11.3 1.02 8.9 1.01
Total amine, meq/g 8.4 4.4 1.0 6.4 13.4 11.26 0.96 8.4 0.97
Primary amine, meq/g 8.2 4.3 0.97 6.1 13.4 11.26 0.95 8.4 0.97
Vapor Pressure, mm Hg/oC 1/101 1/165 0.93/235 ~1/181 ~1/80 ~1/80 - 1.6/100 -
pH, 5% aqueous solution 11.7 11.6 10.5 11.6 11.7 12 11.1 11.7 10.4
Equivalent weight with epoxies 60 115 514 81 37 44 ~250 62 ~500
("Amine hydrogen equivalent
weight," or AHEW)
pKa 9.46 9.51 8.65 9.23 9.62 10.3 9.75 9.67 9.36
Sales Specifications
Appearance Colorless to Colorless to Light yellow Colorless to Colorless to (tentative) White, Colorless to Colorless ST-30.1
slight pale yellow with slight pale yellow pale yellow waxy low pale yellow to pale
yellow with with slight haze with slight with slight melting with slight yellow
slight haze haze haze haze solid haze with slight
haze
Color, Pt-Co 60 max. 75 max. 75 max. 60 max. 30 max. 50 max. 100 max. 125 max. 100 max. ST-30.12
1, 2
Total acetylatables, meq/g 8.3 min. 4.2 min. 0.98 min. 6.5 min. -- -- 0.95 min 8.3 min 0.95 min
9.1 max. 4.9 max. 1.1 max. 7.1 max. 1.15 max 9.3 max 1.05 max
3
Primary amine, % 97 min. 97 min. 97 min 90 min. -- 99 min 90 min -- 97 min.
Total amine, meq/g 8.1 min. 4.1 min. 0.95 min. 6.1 min. 12.8 min 11.0 min 0.94 min 7.6 min 0.90 min ST-5.35
8.7 max. 4.7 max. 1.05 max. 6.6 max. 9.3 max 0.98 max
Water, % 0.25 max. 0.25 max. 0.25 max. 0.25 max. 0.40 max 0.30 max 0.25 max 0.25 max 0.25 max ST-31.53

The JEFFAMINE® products are completely soluble in most hydrocarbons and oxygenated solvents. The wide variety of solvents which may be used in
combination with JEFFAMINE® materials is shown in Table 3.2.
1 Total acetylatables, JEFFAMINE® T-403, meq/g = uncorrected OH number by ST-31.13 2 Total acetylatables, JEFFAMINE® D-series products, meq/g = uncorrected OH number by ST-31.109
56.1 56.1
3 Primary amine, % = [(amine alkalinity, meq/g, by ST-5.35) - (secondary + tertiary amine, meq/g, by ST-5.34)] 100 4 Specific gravity 20/4
total amine, meq/g, by ST-5.35




4
3. Characterisitcs of the JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramines
TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES/SALES SPECIFICATIONS

Typical physical properties and sales specifications are shown in Table 3.1. One important property in high solids
formulations is viscosity. The important effect of temperature on the viscosity of several JEFFAMINE® products is
shown in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1
Effect of Temperature on the Viscosity of
JEFFAMINE® Polyoxypropylenearnines




JEFFAMINE® D-2000




JEFFAMINE® T-403



JEFFAMINE® D-400

JEFFAMINE® D-230




Table 3.2 ÔÇ? Solvent Miscibility of JEFFAMINE┬« PEAÔÇÖs

JEFFAMINE® Products
Solvent * D-230 D-400 D-2000 T-403 XTJ-504 XTJ-590 XTJ-506 HK-511 BA-509
Alcohols M M M M M M M M M
Aliphatic hydrocarbons M M M M I I I M M
Aromatic hydrocarbons M M M M M M M M M
Esters M M M M M M M M M
Glycol ethers M M M M M M M M M
Ketones M M M M M M M M M
Water M PM I M M M M M I

Key: M = Miscible
PM = Partially miscible
I = Imiscible

* Miscibility data has been generalized for each type of solvent. Testing is recommended.




5
3. Characterisitcs of the JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramines
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

JEFFAMINE┬« PEAÔÇÖs undergo reactions typical of primary amines. General reactions which have proven to be
useful include:

RNH2 + Reactant Product RNH2 + Reactant Products

ÔöéÔöé CH2=CH-CN RÔö?NÔö?CH2Ôö?CH2Ôö?CN
RN ÔÇöCÔÇöCOH Ôö?
C C
Ôö? H
H
O Acrylonitrile Cyanoethylated
Aminoalcohols amines
Epoxides (ÔÇťepoxiesÔÇ?)
(ÔÇťepoxy resinsÔÇ?) O O
ÔĽ? ÔĽ?
O O H2N Ôö?CÔö?NH2 RÔö?NÔö?CÔö?NH2 + NH3
ÔĽ? ÔĽ? Ôö?
HOÔö?CÔö?RÔÇ? RÔö?NÔö?CÔö?RÔÇ?+H2O H
Ôö?
Carboxylic acids H Urea Substituted ureas
(or esters, anhydrides,
etc) Amides O RÔÇ?
ÔĽ?
O RÔÇÖCÔö?RÔÇ? RÔö?NÔĽÉC + H2O
OCNÔö?RÔÇ? ÔĽ?
RÔö?NÔö?CÔö?NÔö?RÔÇ? RÔÇ?
Ôö? Ôö? Aldehydes or ketones Imines
H H
Isocyanates Ureas

ÔŐ?
H+X-
RNH3X-
Acids
Salts


For information about reactions other than involving epoxy resins and the possible utilization of those reactions,
contact our Technical Department. (see inside back cover for contact information)




6
4. JEFFAMINE® PEA As Epoxy Curing Agents

4. JEFFAMINE® PEA AS EPOXY CURING AGENTS

THE JEFFAMINE® PEA AS EPOXY CURING AGENTS

A wide range of properties may be developed through the incorporation of JEFFAMINE® products into epoxy
resin formulations. Low shrinkage, good color, flexibility and tough, high gloss are characteristics of epoxy resins
cured with JEFFAMINE┬« PEAÔÇÖs. For example, curing with JEFFAMINE┬« D-230 amine and JEFFAMINE┬« T-403
amine results in thermosetting products that are extremely tough and quite resistant to impact stress, and extreme
thermal cycling. Room temperature curing with JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine results in composites with a high
degree of strength. Formulating with the higher molecular weight products, such as JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine
and JEFFAMINE® D-2000 amine can increase flexibility.

Surface imperfections (e.g., amine-blush and pinholes) of epoxy coatings cured with many unmodified aliphatic
amines are largely overcome through the use of JEFFAMINE® products as curatives. Modifications used with
many aliphatic amine curatives, through cyanoethylation, propoxylation, or epoxy-amine adduct preparation,
necessary to reduce amine basicity, are not required for any of the JEFFAMINE® PEAs.

Table 4.1 compares JEFFAMINE┬« PEAÔÇÖs with other common epoxy curatives. The advantages of color, long pot
life, flexibility, and low viscosity are highlighted.

Table 4.1 ÔÇôComparison of JEFFAMINE┬« PEAÔÇÖs vs.
Other Conventional Epoxy Curing Agents

Viscosity
JEFFAMINE®
amine polyamide
amidoamine
low high
cycloaliphatic aliphatic


Pot Life
JEFFAMINE®
aliphatic
amine polyamide
long short
aliphatic
cycloaliphatic
amidoamine MB


Flexibility/Impact Resistance

cycloaliphatic polyamide
aliphatic
fair excellent
JEFFAMINE®
aliphatic amidoamine
MB amine

Water Resistance

JEFFAMINE®
polyamide
amine cycloaliphatic
low high
aliphatic amidoamine




7
4. JEFFAMINE® PEA As Epoxy Curing Agents
Table 4.1 Continued
Solvent Resistance


amidoamine polyamide cycloaliphatic
fair excellent
®
JEFFAMINE aliphatic aliphatic
amine MB
Color
JEFFAMINE®
amine aliphatic polyamide
low high
aliphatic amidoamine
cycloaliphatic
MB

POLYETHERAMINE FORMULATION BASICS

STOICHIOMETRY

The term "stoichiometry" refers to that area of chemistry that deals with the quantities, or proportions, of
substances that enter into chemical reactions.

Chemicals react in definite proportions. In the simple chemical equation below, a given weight of Chemical A will
always react with a given "equivalent," or "stoichiometric," amount of Chemical B to form Chemical A-B... at least
as long as conditions are such that the reaction can proceed to completion.

1 equivalent A + 1 equivalent B A-B

With epoxies, when the curing agent is a "primary" amine like one of the JEFFAMINE® PEAs, two reactions take
place. First, the oxirane ring in the epoxy resin is opened up.
R1
R1
O HO NH
NH
H
+
R R
Primary
Aminoalcohol
Epoxy Amine

The reaction product is an aminoalcohol, and the amine nitrogen still has one hydrogen available for reaction. In
a second step, this "secondary" amine can react with yet another epoxy, or oxirane, group to build molecular
weight and branching.

R1
R1
R HO N R
HO NH
+
O
R HO
R




8
4. JEFFAMINE® PEA As Epoxy Curing Agents
O

Thus, every -NH2, or primary amine group, requires two oxirane, or ÔÇôCH-CH2- groups for complete reaction.
When the reactants are, for example, a JEFFAMINE® polyetherdiamine and a typical bisphenol A-type epoxy
resin, each molecule of diamine, with its two primary amine groups, may react with four oxirane groups. Each
molecule of resin contains two oxirane groups, as shown below.


H2 N NH 2 OH
O O
O
2
+ O O O O

x
n

Therefore, in regard to chemical balancing, how does one arrive at the correct, or optimum, proportions of
reactants with epoxy systems? In general, there are two ways: (1) calculate the quantities involved from the
chemical "equivalentÔÇ? weights of all the reactants, or (2) determine the balance empirically.

Generally, the empirical, or experimental, method of chemical balancing should be the more accurate of the two
procedures, since actual working conditions are used. Differences in the two calculating methods often arise from
factors such as steric hindrance or catalytic effects.

CALCULATED METHOD

How is the equivalent weight of a JEFFAMINE® product calculated? First, the equivalent weight may be
approximated from the approximate molecular weight, which is the number following the letter that follows the
JEFFAMINE® trade name. For example, the approximate molecular weight of JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine is
400. JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine, being a diamine, has four active hydrogens to react with epoxy groups, so the
approximate equivalent weight is 400/4, or 100. This follows from the general formula:

Amine hydrogen equivalent weight (AHEW) = Amine molecular weight
Number of available hydrogens

and, of course, one "amine hydrogen equivalent weight" will react with one "equivalent weight" of epoxy resin.

A more accurate method for determining an amine hydrogen equivalent weight is to use the primary amine
content, a value that is always available for each lot of product. This value, expressed in milliequivalents per
gram (meq/g), is plugged into the formula

Amine hydrogen equivalent weight (AHEW) = 1,000
2 x primary amine content (meq/g)

For amine hardeners that contain a significant amount of secondary amine groups, as well as primary amines, the
formula above should be modified as follows:

AHEW = 1,000
[2 x primary amine content (meq/g)] + (secondary amine content (meq/g)

These simple formulas for equivalent weight can be used for any JEFFAMINE® product, whatever the
"functionality," or number of amine groups per molecule. Thus, if a sample of JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine has a
primary amine content of 8.3 meq/g (from Table 1), the AHEW of the D-230 will be:

AHEW = 1,000 = 60
2 x 8.3

(Note that these calculations of AHEW were designed for epoxy resin formulating. When amines are used in
some other applications, such as for polyureas, the equations change because under most process conditions the
isocyanate group will react only once with a primary amine group.)




9
4. JEFFAMINE® PEA As Epoxy Curing Agents
EMPIRICAL METHOD

To empirically determine reactant proportions, two "indicators" may be employed: (1) heat distortion temperature
(HDT) ASTM D 648, and (2) glass transition temperature (Tg). Both are measures of the degree of epoxy cure.
In practice, the method is fairly simple if only two reactants are involved, namely, a single epoxy resin and curing
agent.

Procedure: Proportions of the reactants are varied, the blends are cured as completely as possible, and the HDTs
or Tgs are determined and plotted against reactant concentration.

The optimum reactant ratios are, in most cases, considered to be those at which HDTs and/or Tgs are maximized
when the formulation is polymerized using the desired process conditions. (HDT and Tg are discussed in greater
detail on page 54) At such an optimum ratio, the formulation is likely to have the least amount of ÔÇťleftoverÔÇ? amine
or epoxy groups. This is good, because it minimizes changes that can be caused by further reactions.

In Figure 4.1, HDT and Tg are plotted against the amount of amine hardener for three JEFFAMINE® products---
ÔÇťD-230ÔÇ?, ÔÇťD-400ÔÇ?, and ÔÇťT-403ÔÇ?. Needless to say, the empirical method is potentially cumbersome when more than
two reactants are involved, which is frequently the case with epoxies. A simpler way to proportion epoxy
reactants is to use calculated equivalent weights. How do the calculated AHEWs of the JEFFAMINE®
polyamines compare with empirically determined values? First of all, AHEWs calculated from typical primary
amine values have been given in Table 3.1, and are repeated below. Second, empirical equivalent weights can
be derived from Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1

Variation of HDT and Tg with JEFFAMINE® Product Concentrations

JEFFAMINE® T-403 Amine
Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)
JEFFAMINE® D-230 Amine Heat Distortion Temperature (HDT)




JEFFAMINE® D-400 Amine




PARTS-BY-WEIGHT OF JEFFAMINE® CURING AGENT PER 100 PARTS-BY-WEIGHT OF EPOXY (EEW=~185)

Empirical AHEW = Weight of curative at maximum HDT or Tg x Equivalent weight of epoxy resin*
100 parts by wt. of epoxy resin
*(EEW, from the manufacturer)

For example, in the case of JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine, and an epoxy resin with EEW = 185, the numbers are:

Empirical AHEW = 32 x 185 = 59 (60, by calculation).
100

(compared to 60, obtained using the calucation method).


10
4. JEFFAMINE® PEA As Epoxy Curing Agents
Following this procedure, we obtain the comparative numbers for the products shown in the following table:

Equivalent Weight
Product Calculated Empirical
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 60 59
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine 115 104
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine 81 78

Thus, empirical equivalent weights for the JEFFAMINE® products are found to be within a few percent of the
calculated values. So, in working with epoxies, one can safely use amine hydrogen equivalent weights derived
from the primary amine values that are available for each lot of JEFFAMINE® product.

It is notable that in most epoxy work, formulations are based on 100 parts by weight (pbw) of epoxy resin, not on
an epoxide equivalent weight (EEW) quantity (one ÔÇŁequivalent"). One must therefore calculate the amount of
curative required to react with 100 pbw of resin.

Procedure: By definition, equivalent weights of materials react in 1:1 proportions. That is, one equivalent weight
quantity of amine curative will react exactly with one equivalent weight quantity of an epoxy resin. So, a proportion
may be set up where X is the parts of amine curative required to react with 100 pbw of epoxy resin (phr).


AHEW = X , or X = AHEW x 100
EEW 100 EEW


EXAMPLE: JEFFAMINE® D-230 PEA + 188 EEW Epoxy Resin.


The resin producer furnishes the epoxy equivalent weight (EEW) for his productÔÇöe.g., 188. If JEFFAMINE┬« D-
230 amine is used as a curative, the AHEW will be 60 so 32 parts of JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine will be required
to react with 100 parts of this epoxy (EEW = 188).


X = 60 x 100 = 32 phr of JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine
188


While discussing chemical stoichiometry, it is worth noting that considerable latitude in compounding is available
to the epoxy formulator when JEFFAMINE® products are used. Deviation from chemically equivalent amounts of
curative may be tolerated with minimal effect on many of the cured resin properties, a fact that is evident from the
properties shown in Tables 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4. The tables show that near-optimum values for a number of
properties may be obtained over a rather wide concentration variation with the JEFFAMINE® products. This is
not generally the case with other amine curatives.

Thus, the epoxy formulator can use simple and precise calculated equivalent weights for JEFFAMINE® products,
but at the same time enjoy rather wide compounding latitudes, deviating somewhat from the optimum
stoichiometry, without serious deleterious effects on the properties of his finished products.

Note: Although several epoxy resins have been used to develop the data in this brochure, the most commonly
used resin was the industry workhorse, a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA or BADGE) based material
having an EEW of ~188 and viscosity of ~13,000 cP (mPa-sec) (Araldite GY-6010). Wherever "EEW ~188" is
used to designate an epoxy resin, the reader should assume it is this standard, general-purpose DGEBA resin.
Standard resins may be obtained from Huntsman Advanced Materials as well as a number of other suppliers.
Where other types of resins were used, that fact has been noted.




11
4. JEFFAMINE® PEA As Epoxy Curing Agents
Table 4.2 - Properties of an Epoxy Resin Cured with Differing Amounts of JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine

Formulation A B C D E
Epoxy Resin (EEW 188) Araldite GY-6010 100 100 100 100 100
Curative concentration, phr1 24 28 32 36 40
Properties of cured Ôů?-inch castings2
Izod impact strength, ft-lb/in 0.34 0.80 1.10 1.80 2.40
(J/m) (18) (43) (59) (96) (13)
Dynatup® impact, total energy, in-lb (J) 16 (1.8) 36 (4.1) 78 (8.8) 61 (6.9) 78 (8.8)
Shore D hardness, 0-10 sec 76-73 77-75 77-74 77-74 76-73
Tensile strength, psi 10,900 10,900 9,800 9,200 9,500
(MPa) (75.2) (75.2) (67.6) (63.4) (65.5)
Tensile modulus, psi 517,500 475,000 417,500 417,500 455,000
(GPa) (3.57) (3.28) (2.88) (2.88) (3.14)
Elongation at break, % 2.9 5.5 9.6 4.8 6.1
Flexural strength, psi 17,000 17,600 15,700 14,700 15,600
(Mpa) (117) (121) (108) (101) (108)
Flexural modulus, psi 546,000 512,500 454,000 454,000 480,500
(GPa) (3.76) (3.53) (3.13) (3.13) (3.31)
Glass Transition Temp., Tg, oC 65 79 90 86 75
HDT, oC, 264 psi load (1.82 Mpa load) 53 67 80 69 61
% weight gain, 24-hr water boil 2.3 2.8 2.7 3.3 3.9
3-hr acetone boil 32.0 13.3 6.5 8.7 11.4
Compressive strength3 psi, at yield - - 14,300 11,900 11,300
(Mpa), at yield -- -- (98.6) (82.0) (77.9)
psi, at failure 12,800 46,700 35,000 46,900 46,200
(Mpa), at failure (88.3) (322) (221) (323) (319)
Adhesive properties4
Tensile shear strength, psi 4,400 4,100 3,500 4,100 4,400
(MPa) (30.3) (28.3) (24.1) (28.3) (30.3)
T-peel strength, pli (g/mm) 2.6 (46) 2.0 (36) 2.5 (45) 2.6 (46) 2.8 (50)
1 With standard, general-purpose epoxy resin, EEW 185-192, 11,000-15,000 cP (mPa-sec) (Araldite GY-6010).
2 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr. 125oC.
3 1-inch tall cylinders of ┬Ż inch diameter. (2.54 cm tall cylinders of 1.27 cm diameter)
4 Cured 1 hr., 125oC



Table 4.3 - Properties of an Epoxy Resin Cured with Differing Amounts of JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine

Formulation A B C D E
Epoxy Resin (EEW 188) Araldite GY-6010 100 100 100 100 100
Curative concentration, phr1 48 52 56 60 64
Properties of cured Ôů?-inch castings2
lzod impact strength, ft-lb/in 0.46 0.46 0.41 0.86 1.40
(J/m) (25) (25) (22) (46) (75)
Dynatup® impact, total energy, in-lb 84 69 156 134 141
(J) (9.5) (7.8) (17.6) (15.1) (15.9)
Shore D hardness, 0-10 sec 74-70 74-70 74-70 74-70 73-69
Tensile strength, psi 7,900 8,400 8,000 7,400 7,400
(MPa) (54.5) (57.9) (55.1) (51.0) (51.0)
Tensile modulus, psi 401,000 425,000 422,000 385,000 414,000
(GPa) (2.77) (2.93) (2.910) (2.654) (2.854)
Elongation at break, % 3.7 3.8 4.7 4.5 5.5
Flexural strength, psi 12,700 13,400 13,100 11,600 12,700
(MPa) (87.6) (92.4) (90.3) (80.0) (87.6)
Flexural modulus, psi 447,000 452,000 449,500 434,000 452,000
(GPa) (3.082) (3.116) (3.099) (2.992) (3.116)


12
4. JEFFAMINE® PEA As Epoxy Curing Agents
Table 4.3 Continued A B C D E
Glass Transition Temp., Tg, oC 49.0 53.5 56.1 52.9 47.0
HDT, oC, 264 psi (1.82 MPa) load 41 44 47 45 44
% weight gain, 24-hr water boil 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.8 3.0
3-hr acetone boil 41.6 32.2 25.4 25.0 23.8
Compressive strength3 psi, at yield 10,400 10,100 9,600 9,100 9,500
(MPa) at yield (71.7) (69.6) (66.2) (62.7) (65.5)
psi at failure 41,000 47,100 45,300 46,400 44,300
(MPa) at failure (283) (325) (312) (320) (305)
Adhesive properties4
Tensile shear strength, psi 3,900 3,800 3,800 3,800 3,600
(MPa) (26.9) (26.2) (26.2) (26.2) (24.8)
T-peel strength, pli 3.2 3.9 4.9 5.9 5.1
(g/mm) (57) (70) (88) (105) (91)
1 With standard, general-purpose epoxy resin, EEW 185-192, 11,000-15,000 cP (mPa-sec) (Araldite GY-6010).
2 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr. 125oC.
3 1-inch tall cylinders of ┬Ż inch diameter. (2.54 cm tall cylinders of 1.27 cm diameter)
4 Cured 1 hr., 125oC



Table 4.4 - Properties of an Epoxy Resin Cured with Differing Amounts of JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine

Formulation A B C D E
Curative concentration, phr1 34 38 42 46 50
Properties of cured Ôů?-inch castings2
Izod impact strength, ft-lb/in 0.71 0.90 0.90 1.00 1.40
(J/m) (38) (48) (48) (53) (75)
Dynatup® impact, total energy, in-lb 22 63 54 45 61
(J) (2.5) (7.1) (6.1) (51) (6.9)
Shore D hardness, 0 -10 sec 77-75 76-74 78-75 78-75 75-72
Tensile strength, psi 11,400 10,600 9,500 9,300 8,900
(MPa) (78.6) (73.1) (65.5) (64.1) (61.4)
Tensile modulus, psi 478,000 447,000 418,000 390,500 402,000
(GPa) (3.30) (3.08) (2.88) (2.69) (2.77)
Elongation at break, % 5.4 7.3 6.7 11.2 12.1
Flexural strength, psi 19,100 17,000 15,500 15,100 14,700
(MPa) (132) (117) (107) (104) (101)
Flexural modulus, psi 570,000 509,000 437,000 443,000 440,000
(GPa) (3.93) (3.51) (3.01) (3.05) (3.03)
Glass Transition Temperature, Tg, oC 77.7 89.0 95.6 89.6 82.3
HDT, oC, 264 psi (1.82 MPa) load 62 73 83 78.5 70
% weight gain, 24-hr water boil 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.5
3-hr acetone boil 14.7 9.5 5.6 5.2 6.7
Compressive strength3 psi, at yield 11,400 10,500 11,700 11,500 10,100
(MPa) at yield (78.6) (72.4) (80.7) (79.3) (69.6)
psi at failure 34,900 41,100 41,000 44,300 43,700
(MPa) at failure (241) (283) (283) (305) (301)
Adhesive properties4
Tensile shear strength, psi 3,500 4,000 3,400 3,800 4,100
(MPa) (24.1) (27.6) (23.4) (26.2) (28.3)
T-peel strength, pli 4.0 4.6 4.4 6.5 4.9
(g/mm) (71) (82) (79) (116) (88)
1 With standard, general-purpose epoxy resin, EEW 185-192, 11,000-15,000 cP (mPa-sec) (Araldite GY-6010).
2 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr. 125oC.
3 1-inch tall cylinders of ┬Ż inch diameter. (2.54 cm tall cylinders of 1.27 cm diameter)
4 Cured 1 hr., 125oC




13
4. JEFFAMINE® PEA As Epoxy Curing Agents
CURING CHARACTERISTICS

Medium-to-long pot life, low-to-moderate peak exothermic temperatures, and a relatively high hardener-to-resin
ratio mark the curing of epoxy resins with JEFFAMINE® polyamines. The combination of low heat development
and long pot life is beneficial for a number of applications, e.g., potting, encapsulation, and filament winding.
Typical curing data are given in Table 4.5 for the JEFFAMINE® products and for four other amines commonly
used for epoxy curing agents. The buildup in viscosity with time for these same systems is shown in Figure 4.2,
below.

Table 4.5 - Resin Curing Characteristics with JEFFAMINE® Polyamines and Other
Typical Amine Curatives

6-Mil Film2
Curative Peak Drying Time,
Concentration Pot Life, Exotherm Set-to-Touch Through-
phr1 o
Curative C hours Dry, hours
minutes
2803
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 32 64 8.9 16.2
4803
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine 55 35 15.0 24.8
2803
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine 42 38 8.6 16.3
JEFFAMINE® D-400/D-2000 amine
4
(50:25 blend by wt.) 75 33 22.4 37.0
1.75
Diethylenetriamine (DETA) 11 33.8 269 3.4
Polyamide6 (amine value 385) 4.66
52 ~130 112 9.8
0.27
N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) 23 18.6 259 1.3
Aromatic amine8 1808
25 27 18.2 27.6
1 General-purpose epoxy resin, EEW ~ 188. Size of curing mass: 200 g (Araldite GY-6010). 2 Gardner circular drying time recorder, Gardner Laboratories, Bethesda Maryland.
3 No definite gel; time to reach 10,000 cP (mPa-sec). 4 Reached 2,060 cP (mPa-sec) in ~480 minutes.
5 Versamid® 140 polyamide, Henkel Corp. 6 No induction period before applying coating: surface blush.
7 Surface badly mottled; heavy blush. 8 EPON CURING AGENT Y, Resolution Performance Products.



Figure 4.2
Changes in Viscosity with Time for Epoxy Resin/Amine Systems
AEP (23 phr)

DETA (11 phr)

JEFFAMINE® D-230 (32 phr)
Polyamide (52 phr)


JEFFAMINE® T-430 (43 phr)




JEFFAMINE® D-400 (55 phr)




JEFFAMINE® D-400/D-2000 (50/25 phr)




14
5. JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramine Acceleration of Cure


5. JEFFAMINE® PEA ACCELERATION OF CURE

ACCELERATOR 399

Curing epoxy with a JEFFAMINE® polyamine at temperatures near 25°C (77°F) is relatively slow. For many
applications, acceleration of cure is desirable. In order to provide more rapid ambient curing of formulations
containing JEFFAMINE® products, Accelerator 399 was developed. The use of small amounts of Accelerator 399
in PEA cured formulations results in considerable reduction in curing time, as shown in Tables 5.1 and 5.2.
Specifically, the effect on dry time and pot life are shown graphically in Figures 5.1 and 5.2 Note that the less
reactive the amine, the greater the relative effect of the accelerator. Also, note that the accelerator does not
greatly affect most of the polymer properties associated with the unaccelerated systems.

Complete information concerning the use of Accelerator 399 with JEFFAMINE® curing agents is contained in the
Huntsman bulletin entitled "Accelerator 399: Epoxy Curing Promoter for Use with JEFFAMINE® Curing Agents."

Other materials useful for accelerating the cure of JEFFAMINE® PEA include Accelerator 399 (a nonylphenol),
Epoxy Curing Agent ECA-39, AEP, and various other ethylene amines. (Contact Huntsman Technical Department
for details) Additional examples demonstrating the effect of these materials will be covered in the following
sections.
Table 5.1 - Effect of Accelerator 399 on Exothermic and Clear Coating Properties

Formulation, pbw A B C D E F G H I
Epoxy resin (EEW 188) Araldite GY- 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
6010
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 32 32 32 - - - -
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine - - - 55 55 50 50 - -
JEFFAMINE® D-2000 amine - - - - - 25 25 - -
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine - - - - - - - 42 42
Accelerator 399 - 5 10 - 10 - 10 - 5
Exothermic data
Brookfield viscosity (approx.), cP
(mPa-sec), 25oC 600 700 700 600 600 600 600 1,600 1,600
2801 4801 2
2801
Gel time, minutes (200-g mass) 65 25 54 ~100 81
Peak exothermic temperature, oC 64 191 213 35 140 33 58 38 163
Time to peak temperature, minutes 396 72 30 ~700 68 ~960 108 450 90
Coating properties, 6-mil film
Drying time, hr
Set-to-touch 8.9 7.6 5.0 15.0 9.2 22.4 13.7 8.6 5.5
Surface-dry 12.6 9.9 8.5 18.7 10.5 26.1 15.1 13.0 7.1
Through-dry 16.2 13.6 12.5 24.8 14.5 37.0 22.6 16.3 11.7
Pencil hardness Cure:
24 hr, ~25oC 3 3 3
B HB HB <3B 2B F
24 hr, ~25oC; 1 hr, 110oC H H H F F <3B BH H H
7 days, ~25oC H H H F F 3B 2B H H
3 3 3
Reverse impact, in-lb (Joules) to fail <4 <4 16 >160 <4 6
Cure: 24 hr, ~25oC 3 3 3
(<.45) (<.45) (1.8) (>18) (<.45) (0.7)
>160 >160 >160 >160 >160 >160 >160 >160
24 hr, ~25oC; 1 hr, 110oC (>18) (>18) (>18) (>18) (>18) (>18) (>18) (>18) 140
<4 <4 6 20 >160 >160 >160 6 10
7 days, ~25oC (<.45) (<.45) (.68) (2.25) (>18) (>18) (>18) (.68) (1.13
108 107 106 104 109 106 102 110 109
Gloss, 60o, 7 days, ~25oC (12.2) (12.0) (11.9) (11.7) (12.3) (11.9) (11.5) (12.4) (12.3)
Crosshatch adhesion, %, 7 days, ~25oC 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
1 No definite gel; time to reach 10,000 cP (mPa-sec).
2 Reached 2,060 cps in ~480 minutes.
3 Coating too tacky to test.




15
5. JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramine Acceleration of Cure

Table 5.2 - Effect of Accelerator 399 on Physical Properties of Unfilled Castings

Formulation, pbw A B C D E F G H I
Epoxy resin (EEW 188) Araldite GY-6010 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 32 32 32 - - - - - -
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine - - - 55 55 50 50 -
JEFFAMINE® D-2000 amine - - - - - 25 25
JEFFAMINE®T-403 amine - - - - - - 42 42
Accelerator 399 - 5 10 10 - 10 -- 5
Properties of cured Ôů?-inch castings1
Izod impact strength, ft-lb/in 0.20 0.25 0.28 1.10 1.50 9.50 8.90 0.16 0.20
J/m (11) (13) (15) (59) (80) (507) (475) (8.5) (11)
Dynatup® impact, total energy, in-lb 8 17 27 225 200 175 199 27 23
J (0.9) (1.9) (3.1) (25.4) (22.6) (19.8) (22.5) (3.1) (2.6)
Shore D hardness, 0 -10 sec 89-87 84-81 83-79 70-63 69-62 68-55 55-37 73-65 80-77
Tensile strength, psi 7,600 9,900 10,200 4,000 5,100 1,200 .1,700 9,200 8,000
(MPa) (52.4) (68.3) (70.3) (27.6) (35.2) (8.27) (11.7) (63.4) (55.2)
Tensile modulus, psi 476,000 532,000 500,000 300,000 300,000 - - 470,000 510,000
(GPa) (3.28) (3.67) (3.45) (2.07) (2.07) (3.24) (3.52)
Elongation at break, % 2 2 2 98 73 109 73 3 2
Flexural strength, psi 10,800 13,300 15,500 7,300 8,700 - - 14,400 15,600
(MPa) (74.5) (91.7) (107) (50.3) (60.0) (99.3) (108)
Flexural modulus, psi 477,000 530,000 534,000 280,000 286,000 - 500,000 536,000
-
(GPa) (3.29) (3.65) (3.68) (1.93) (1.98) (3.45) (3.70)
HDT, oC, 264-psi (1.82 MPa) load, 46 45 47 28 36 - - 44 41
% weight gain, 24-hr water boil 2.4 3.3 2.7 2.7 2.3 2.6 1.2 2.0 2.4
3-hr acetone boil 30.8 26.4 16.4 28.1 19.7 30.3 32.7 26.3 23.4
Compressive strength2` psi, at yield 12,500 13,300 12,500 6,100 5,400 - 42,800 11,500 13,400
(MPa), at yield (86.2) (91.7) (86.2) (42.1) (37.2) - (295) (79.3) (92.4)
psi, at failure 34,000 27,000 23,000 34,000 35,000 39,000 43,300 24,000 17,000
(MPa), at failure (234) (186) (159) (234) (241) (269) (299) (165) (117)
1 Cured 7 days, ~25oC
2 Cured 24 hrs, 80oC; 3 hrs, 125oC




16
5. JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramine Acceleration of Cure

Table 5.2 ÔÇ? Continued

Formulation, pbw A B C D E F G H I
Properties of cured Ôů?-inch castings1
Izod impact strength, ft-lb/in 1.10 1.60 1.80 0.41 2.90 7.80 9.60 0.90 1.00
J/m (58.7) (85.4) (96.1) (21.9) (155) (416) (512) (48) (53.4)
Dynatup® impact, total energy, in-lb 78 82 99 100 188 216 210 54 44
(J) (8.8) (9.3) (11) (11.3) (21.2) (24.4) (23.7) (6.1) (5.0)
Shore D hardness, 0-10 sec 78-75 76-73 76-73 75-71 74-69 62-58 56-39 78-75 80-77
Tensile strength, psi 9,400 10,200 9,600 7,600 6,300 1,700 1,200 9,500 9,700
(MPa) (64.8) (70.3) (66.2) (52.4) (43.4) (11.7) (8.27) (65.5) (66.9)
Tensile modulus, psi 392,000 460,000 441,000 390,000 360,000 30,500 9,100 418,000 420,000
(GPa) (2.70) (3.17) (3.04) (2.69) (2.48) (.210) (.0627) (2.88) (2.90)
Elongation at break, % 8 7 8 4 4 86 75 7 8
Flexural strength, psi 14,900 17,200 16,500 12,900 10,500 970 200 15,500 15,300
(MPa) (103) (119) (114) (88.9) (72.4) (6.69) (1.38) (107) (105)
Flexural modulus, psi 429,000 491,000 488,000 460,000 350,000 42,000 6,400 437,000 453,000
(GPa) (2.96) (3.39) (3.36) (3.17) (2.41) (.290) (.0441) (3.01) (3.12)
HDT, oC, 264-psi (1.82 MPa) load 80 69 58 43 38 ~25 24 83 72
% weight gain, 24-hr water boil 2.4 3.2 3.2 2.8 0.6 2.6 1.2 2.0 2.6
3-hr acetone boil 6.9 6.7 10.8 24.2 21.8 33.3 35.1 5.6 5.6
Compressive strength2 psi, at yield 14,300 - 12,200 9,700 8,000 37,000 - 11,700 10,300
(MPa), at yield (98.6) - (84.1) (66.9) (55.2) (255) - (80.7) (71.0)
psi, at failure 35,000 42,000 40,000 30,000 41,000 37,000 47,000 41,000 41,100
(MPa), at failure (241) (290) (276) (207) (283) (255) (324) (283) (283)
1 Cured 2 hr, 80oC, 3 hr, 125oC.
2 1-inch tall cylinders of ┬Ż -inch diameter. (2,54 cm tall cylinders of 1.27 cm diameter.




17
5. JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramine Acceleration of Cure

Figure 5.1
Effect of Accelerator 399 on Through-Dry Time




JEFFAMINE® D-400/D-2000 Amine




JEFFAMINE® D-400 Amine
JEFFAMINE® D-400/D-2000 Amine



JEFFAMINE® D-230 Amine




JEFFAMINE® T-403 Amine




FIgure 5.2
Effect of Accelerator 399 on Pot Life1




JEFFAMINE® D-400/D-2000 Amine


JEFFAMINE® D-230 Amine


JEFFAMINE® D-400 Amine



JEFFAMINE® T-403 Amine




1 Time to reach 10,000 cps or gel, whichever occurs first.




18
5. JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramine Acceleration of Cure

NONYLPHENOL

Alkylphenols also accelerate epoxy systems cured with JEFFAMINE® products. Nonylphenol in particular is an
excellent adjunct in epoxies, accelerating cure, while maintaining good physical properties, and improved
moisture resistance-not to mention lower costs.

Effects of nonylphenol on cure rates and the properties are shown in Tables 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5. The effect on cure
rates is shown graphically in Figure 5.3.

The data indicates that each particular epoxy system can tolerate a certain maximum level of nonylphenol without
serious deterioration of physical properties (HDT, tensile strength, etc.). Beyond that level, properties decline fairly
rapidly. The maximum nonylphenol level cannot be predicted; it must be arrived at experimentally for each epoxy
system.

Finally, it might be noted that other accelerating products are useful with systems cured with JEFFAMINE®
products. These might include triethylenediamine and derivatives, tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (a.k.a.
JEFFCAT® TR-30 catalyst), JEFFCAT® TR-90 benzyldimethylamine (BDMA), triphenyl phosphite, salicylic acid
and DNP dinonylphenol (supplied only by Huntsman).

Table 5.3 - Curing with JEFFAMINE® D-230 Amine - Effect of Nonylphenol

Formulation, pbw A B C D E
Liquid epoxy resin (EEW 188) Araldite GY-6010 100 100 100 100 100
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 32 32 32 32 32
Nonylphenol - 10 20 30 40
Exothermic data
Brookfield viscosity, cP (mPa┬Ěs), 250oC 600 890 1,190 1,720 2,190
2801
Gel time, minutes (200-g mass) 127 65 49 47
Peak exothermic temperature, oC 64 132 157 164 158
Time to peak temperature, minutes 396 150 76 56 46
Coating properties, 6-mil film
Gardner dry time, hr, set-to-touch 9.9 6.5 6.0 5.2 5.1
surface-dry 14.3 9.7 8.5 6.8 7.0
through-dry 20.0 17.9 13.5 11.3 10.0
Properties of cured Ôů?-inch castings2
Izod impact strength, ft-lb/in 0.20 0.28 0.20 0.47 0.70
J/m (11) (15) (11) (25) (37)
Dynatup® impact, total energy, in-lb (J) 8 (0.9) 30 (3.4) 26 (2.9) 27 (3.1) 38 (4.3)
Shore D hardness, 0-10 sec 77-70 78-75 78-74 77-72 75-69
Tensile strength, psi 8,100 9,500 9,800 8,300 6,400
(MPa) (55.8) (65.5) (67.6) (57.2) (44.1)
Tensile modulus, psi 480,000 470,000 460,000 410,000 350,000
(GPa) (3.31) (3.24) (3.17) (2.83) (2.41)
Ultimate elongation, % 1.8 2.3 3.8 5.0 7.8
Flexural strength, psi 11,000 12,900 14,800 14,900 10,700
(MPa) (75.8) (88.9) (102) (103) (73.8)
Flexural modulus, psi 516,000 515,000 481,000 457,000 343,000
(GPa) (3.56) (3.55) (3.32) (3.15) (2.36)
HDT, oC, 264 psi (1.82 MPa) load 44 44 42 40 33
% weight gain, 24-hr water boil 2.4 2.0 1.0 2.8 -0.5
3 3
3-hr acetone boil 30.8 25.4 21.4
Compressive strength4, psi, at yield 12,500 13,000 10,400 12,300 10,100
(MPa), at yield (86.2) (89.6) (71.7) (84.8) (69.6)
psi, at failure 34,000 20,000 19,000 33,000 27,000
(MPa), at failure (234) (138) (131) (228) (186)
1 Time to reach 10,000 cP (mPa-sec)
2 Cured 7 days, ~25oC
3 Samples destroyed
4 1-inch tall cylinders of ┬Ż-inch diameter. (2.54 cm tall cylinders of 1.27 cm diameter)




19
5. JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramine Acceleration of Cure


Table 5.4 - Curing with JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine - Effect of Nonylphenol

Formulation, pbw A B C D E
Liquid epoxy resin (EEW 188) Araldite GY-6010 100 100 100 100 100
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine 55 55 55 55 55
Nonylphenol - 5 10 20 30
Exothermic data
Brookfield viscosity, cP (mPa-sec), 25oC 640 610 790 1,000 1,300
4801 3401 2631 1682 1251
Gel time, minutes (200-g mass)
Peak exothermic temperature, oC 34 35 39 55 88
Time to peak temperature, minutes 960 446 344 198 148
Coating properties, 6-mil film
Gardner dry time, hr, set-to-touch 15.0 14.9 13.0 12.8 10.6
surface-dry 18.7 17.7 15.4 14.1 12.2
through-dry 24.8 23.4 17.5 15.9 14.8
Properties of cured Ôů?-inch castings2
Izod impact strength, ft-lb/in 1.10 1.29 2.00 8.80 9.42
J/m (59) (69) (107) 470) (503)
Dynatup® impact, total energy, in-lb 225 223 220 217 194
J (25.4) (25.2) (24.9) (24.5) (21.9)
Shore D hardness, 0 -10 sec 70-63 74-67 71-63 65-51 56-36
Tensile strength, psi 4,000 4,300 3,300 2,600 1,160
(MPa) (27.6) (29.6) (22.8) (17.9) (8.00)
Tensile modulus, psi 300,000 295,000 210,000 80,000 13,000
(GPa) (2.07) (2.03) (1.45) (0.552) (0.0896)
Ultimate elongation, % 98 101 91 98 83
Flexural strength, psi 7,300 8,100 6,300 2,200 270
(MPa) (50.3) (55.8) (43.4) (15.2) (1.86)
Flexural modulus, psi 280,000 306,000 241,000 78,000 12,000
(GPa) (1.93) (2.11) (1.66) (0.538) (0.0827)
HDT, oC, 264-psi (1.82 MPa) load 28.5 29 28 <24 <25
% weight gain, 24-hr water boil 2.7 2.4 1.9 1.4 0.4
3
3-hr acetone boil 28.1 29.4 28.0 28.3
Compressive strength4 psi at yield 6,100 5,700 5,800 - -
(MPa) at yield (42.1) (39.3) (40.0) - -
psi, at failure 34,000 46,000 >34,000 >42,000 38,000
(MPa) at failure (234) (317) (>234) (>290) (262)
1 Time to reach 10,000 cP (mPa-sec)
2 Cured 7 days, `25oC
3 Samples destroyed
4 1-inch tall cylinders of ┬Ż-inch diameter. (2.54 cm tall cylinders of 1.27 cm diameter)




20
5. JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramine Acceleration of Cure

Table 5.5 - Curing with JEFFAMINE® T-403-Effect of Nonylphenol

Formulation, pbw A B C D E
Liquid epoxy resin (EEW 188) Araldite GY-6010 100 100 100 100 100
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine 42 42 42 42 42
Nonylphenol - 10 20 30 40
Exothermic data
Brookfield viscosity, cP (mPa-sec), 25oC 1,650 2,400 2,990 3,670 4,300
2801
Gel time, minutes (200-g mass) 133 73 54 45
Peak exothermic temperature, oC 38 106 151 151 150
Time to peak temperature, minutes 450 177 91 65 57
Coating properties, 6-mil film
Gardner dry time, hr, set-to-touch 8.6 7.4 5.5 4.1 3.7
surface-dry 13.0 9.4 7.2 5.6 5.3
through-dry 19.3 18.0 15.0 11.3 9.1
Properties of cured Ôů?-inch castings2
Izod impact strength, ft-lb/in 0.16 0.28 0.35 0.58 0.95
J/m (8.5) (15) (19) (31) (51)
Dynatup® impact, total energy, in-lb 27 29 28 23 32
(J) (3.1) (3.3) (3.2) (2.6) (3.6)
Shore D hardness, 0-10 sec 73-65 79-75 79-75 77-73 75-69
Tensile strength, psi 9,200 9,000 9,000 7,900 5,800
(MPa) (63.4) (62.1) (62.1) (54.5) (40.0)
Tensile modulus, psi 470,000 470,000 430,000 390,000 320,000
(GPa) (3.24) (3.24) (2.96) (2.69) (2.21)
Ultimate elongation, % 2.8 2.7 4.3 5.7 9.9
Flexural strength, psi 14,400 15,600 15,500 14,500 9,500
(MPa) (99.3) (108) (107) (100) (65.5)
Flexural modulus, psi 500,000 530,000 492,000 440,000 310,000
(GPa) (3.45) (3.65) (3.39) (3.03) (2.14)
HDT, oC, 264 psi (1.82 MPa) load 44 44 41 41 32
% weight gain, 24-hr water boil 2.0 1.7 1.4 0.9 -0.
3
3-hr acetone boil 26.3 23.6 20.1 17.9
Compressive strength4, psi, at yield 11,500 13,000 12,500 10,800 3,500
(MPa), at yield (79.3) (89.6) (86.2) (74.5) (24.1)
psi, at failure 24,000 30,000 31,000 29,000 27,600
(MPa), at failure (165) (207) (214) (200) (190)

1 Time to reach 10,000 cP (mPa-sec)
2 Cured 7 days, ~25oC
3 Samples destroyed
4 1-inch cylinders of 1.2-inch diameter. (2.54 cm tall cylinders of 1.27 cm diameter)




21
5. JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramine Acceleration of Cure

Figure 5.3
Effect of Nonylphenol on Pot Life1




JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine




JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine




JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine




1 Time to reach 10,000 cps of gel, whichever occurs first..




22
6. Surface Coating Formulations

6. SURFACE COATING FORMULATIONS

SURFACE COATINGS

The properties of JEFFAMINE® curatives lend themselves to the preparation of excellent coatings and protective
finishes. Epoxy coatings cured with JEFFAMINE® products are flexible, tough, and resistant to impact and
abrasion. They have excellent resistance to blushing compared to other amine hardeners. An article entitled
ÔÇťAmine Blushing Problems? No Sweat!ÔÇ?, which describes blush and its prevention, may be found under the epoxy
applications/..technical documents section of the Huntsman web site at www.huntsmanepoxy.com.

Formulations useful in several coating application areas follow.

DECORATIVE COATING

1.Decoupage

A popular application for epoxies is in decoupage-type coatings where objects such as wooden plaques, clocks,
pictures and signs are coated with a high-gloss finish. JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine and JEFFAMINE® T-403
amine are ideally suited for this application, providing clear, blush-free, glossy, solvent free, high-build coatings.

Decoupage Coating

Part 1ÔÇöResin Pbw PBvol
Epoxy resin1 100

Part 2ÔÇöCurative
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 30
Nonylphenol2 60 100
Aminoethylpiperazine (AEP)3 4
1Low viscosity resin, 4,000-6,000 cP (= mPa-sec), EEW 172-176.
2 Huntsman Decoupage grade monononylphenoll
3 Huntsman (AEP)

Decoupage Coating

Coating Properties
Drying time, hr, 6-mil film
Set-to-touch 4.5
Surface-dry 5.5
Through-dry 7.7
Pencil hardness
Cure: 24 hr, ~25oC B
48 hr, ~25oC F
7 days, ~25oC F
Gardner impact, in-lb (J) to failure
Cure: 24 hr, ~25oC, reverse/direct >160/>160 (>18/>18)
48 hr, ~25oC, reverse/direct >160/>160 (>18/>18)
7 days, ~25oC, reverse/direct 6/18 (0.68/2.0)
Taber abrasion, wt. loss, mg, 1,000 Drying time, hr, 6-mil film
cycles,
1,000 g wt. (CS-17 wheel) Set-to-touch
Cure: 24 hr, ~25oC 116
48 hr, ~25oC 155
7 days, ~25oC 241




23
6. Surface Coating Formulations
Mix equal volumes of Part 1 and Part 2. The two parts must be thoroughly mixed together to obtain a properly
cured coating. The pot life of this system is about 20 minutes.

Coatings of this type should be applied to horizontal surfaces. The object to be coated should be elevated from
the work surface by a pedestal smaller in diameter than the object so the coating can flow freely off the edges. As
soon as the coating is mixed, it should be poured over the object and, if necessary, spread with a brush to ensure
complete coverage. The bubbles created during mixing are typically broken by brushing the coatingÔÇÖs surface or
by blowing on it using forced hot air.

This high-gloss coating of 10 to 20 mils thickness will dry in about 7 hours at room temperature (~25oC) and will
achieve its full hardness in 2 to 3 days. Color and gloss (i.e., lack of blush) are outstanding.

Where a low HDT can be a problem (on tabletops, for example) a formulation containing less nonylphenol is
recommended: 25/21/4 pbwt. JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine/nonylphenol/AEP, at 50 pbvol., mixed with 100 pbvol.
of epoxy resin (EEW 188).

Note that clear coatings of this type should not be used on objects exposed to direct sunlight. General-purpose
epoxy resins will yellow over time under such conditions.

2. Non-yellowing Varnish

As indicated above, clear coatings based on standard aromatic-based epoxy resins do not hold up well in
sunlight. However, solventless coatings of low viscosity having improved U.V. light stability can be formulated
from hydrogenated DGEBA type resins, which are nonaromatic.

Non-Yellowing Varnish

Part 1ÔÇöResin pbw
Hydrogenated DGEBA type 100
epoxy, EEW 232-238

Part 2ÔÇöCurative
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine 34
Imidazole 4

Pot life is 4 to 5 hours. The coating will dry in about 1 day.

Non-Yellowing Varnish

Coating properties
Viscosity, cP (= mPa-sec) 1,050
Density, lb/gal 8.9
(g/cc) (1.07)
Drying time, hr, 6-mil film
Set-to-touch 16.3
Surface-dry 20.6
Through-dry 30.8
Pencil hardness
Cure: 24 hr, ~251oC B
7 days, ~25oC F
Yellowing index (ÔłćYI) 0.4
After 1,000 hr
Weatherometer1 exposure
1 Xenon bulb; continuous light, 17-minute water spray every 2 hours. Clear coating (10-12 mils) applied to white ceramic tile.




24
6. Surface Coating Formulations
PROTECTIVE COATINGS

1. Organic Zinc Rich Primer

Zinc primers, developed to protect structural steel, offer excellent corrosion resistance when used either as pre-
construction primers or as top-coated primers.

Organic Zinc Rich Primer

Part 1ÔÇöResin Pounds Gallons
Zinc Dust 44L1 1,115.0 18.9
BENTONE® 27 rheological additive2 11.0 0.6
Methanol 6.0 0.9
Solid epoxy resin, EEW 450-550 48.0 4.9
Xylene 67.0 9.3
Methyl Isobutyl ketone 16.0 2.4
n-Butanol 89.0 13.1
1,352.0 50.1
Part 2ÔÇöCurative
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 5.3 0.67
1 Zinc Corporation of America, Monaca, PA
2 Elementis Specialties, Inc., Hightstown, NJ.



Organic Zinc Rich Primer

Coating Properties
Viscosity, KU 95
Density, lb/gal (g/cc) 27.2 (3.26)
Hegman grind 1┬Ż
Drying time, hr, 4-mil wet film thickness
Through-dry 1.0
Pencil hardness
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC B
7 days, ~25oC HB
Gardner impact, in-lb (J) to fail
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC, reverse/direct 4/30 (0.45/3.39)
7 days, ~25oC, reverse/direct <4/20 (<0.45/2.26)
Taber abrasion, wt. loss, mg, 1,000
cycles, 1,000 g wt. (CS-1 7 wheel)
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC 165
7 days, ~25oC 126
Crosshatch adhesion, %
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC 100
7 days, ~25oC 100

JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine, blended on an equivalent weight basis, may be substituted for JEFFAMINE® D-230
amine to give a more flexible coating that cures more slowly.




25
6. Surface Coating Formulations
2. Coal Tar Epoxy

Coal tar-modified epoxy coatings are frequently used to line water tanks and to coat bridges, decks, and
pipelines. They offer corrosion protection from water, acids, alkalies, salts, and some solvents. Here is a coal tar
epoxy based on JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine.
Coal Tar Epoxy

Part 1ÔÇöEpoxy Resin Pounds Gallons
General-purpose resin, EEW-~188 215 22.2
(Araldite GY-6010)1

Part 2ÔÇöCurative
Coal tar pitch (70-75oC softening point) 291 28.7
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 66 8.4
Talc ÔÇ? medium oil absorption 258 11.1
Xylene 166 23.0
BENTONE® 382 13 .07
Ethanol (95%) 8 1.2
JEFFCAT® TR-30 accelerator (tris- 11 1.3
(dimethylaminomethyl) phenol
813 74.4
1 Huntsman Advanced Materials
2 Elementis Specialties, Inc., Hightown, NJ



Coal Tar Epoxy

Coating Properties
Viscosity, KU 105
Density, lb/gal (g/cc) 10.9 (1.31)
Hegman grind 2┬Ż-3
Drying time, hr, 6-mil wet film thickness
Set-to-touch ~1
Surface dry 12.5
Through-dry 12.5
Pencil hardness
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC F
7 days, ~25oC F
Gardner impact, in-lb (J) to fail
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC, reverse/direct 4/14 (0.45/1.6)
7 days, ~25oC, reverse/direct <4/14 (<0.45/1.6)
Taber abrasion, wt. loss, mg, 1,000
cycles, 1,000 g wt. (CS-1 7 wheel)
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC 44
7 days, ~25oC 89
Crosshatch adhesion, %
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC 100
7 days, ~25oC 100




26
6. Surface Coating Formulations
3. High-Solids Epoxy

Because of increasing concern for the environment and stricter governmental regulations, high-solids (i.e., low-
solvent) coatings have gained importance. Formulating such coatings is complicated by the fact that liquid resins
and lower-viscosity curing agents offer considerably less flexibility than the solvent borne solid resins and viscous
polyamides used in the past. By using the JEFFAMINE® products in combination with the polyamides, in effect
as reactive diluents, the coatings formulator may reduce solvent levels and still maintain flexibility and other
necessary coating properties.

The formulations shown below for high-solids enamels demonstrate this concept. Different solvents may be
substituted as needed for those listed in order to comply with current regulations.

High-Solids Epoxy

Part 1-Resin A B C
Pounds Gallons Pounds Gallons Pounds Gallons
General-purpose epoxy resin, 324.0 33.40 324.0 33.40 324,0 33.40
EEW ~188
C12-C14 aliphatic glycidyl ether1 36.1 4.75 36.1 4.75 36.1 4.75
Titanium dioxide 92.0 2.60 92.0 2.60 92.0 2.60
HUBERBRITE® 72 220.0 6.10 220.0 6.10 220.0 6.10
MISTRON3533 189.9 8.00 189.9 8.00 189.9 8.00
BENTONE® 27 rheological 11.1 0.74 11.1 0.74 11.1 0.74
additive4
Methanol/water, 95:5 3.7 0.56 3.7 0.56 3.7 0.56
Silicone resin SR-825 9.0 1.00 9.0 1.00 9.0 1.00
Ethoxyethanol 41.2 5.32 41.2 5.32 41.2 5.32
927.0 62.47 927.0 62.47 927.0 62.47

Part 2-Curative
Versamid® 140 polyamide6 144.0 17.56 72.0 8.78 - -
Ethoxyethanol 62.0 8.00 47.0 6.06 15.3 1.97
n-Butanol 33.9 5.00 23.6 3.50 8.3 1.23
Toluene 20.0 2.77 14.4 1.99 5.1 0.71
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine - - 53.1 6.72 106.2 12.43
259.9 33.33 210.1 27.05 134.9 16.34
1 HeloxyÔä? Modifier 8, Resolution Performance Products, Houston, TX.
2 J M Huber.
3 Luzenac
4 Elementis Specialties, Inc., Hightstown, NJ.
5 General Electric Co.
6 Henkel Corp.



The components of Part 1 should be mixed according to the following procedure:

Mix epoxy resin, glycidyl ether, and ethoxyethanol.
Add BENTONE® 27 additive and mix (high shear disperser) for about 5 minutes.
Add methanol/water and mix another 5 minutes.
Blend in silicone resin.
Add pigments and grind to a Hegman number of 3-4.
These formulations may be thinned, as needed, with an 8/5/2.8 pbv mixture of ethoxyethanol/n-butanol/toluene.

Cured properties for the above, high solids epoxies.




27
6. Surface Coating Formulations

High Solids Epoxy

Coating Properties A B C
Solids, wt.% 85.7 87.8 92.2
vol.% 76.4 78.6 85.4
Viscosity, KU 76 78 76
Density, lb/gal (g/cc) 12.4 12.7 13.3
Hegman grind 4-4┬Ż 4-4┬Ż 4-4┬Ż

Drying time, hr, 5-mil wet film thickness
Set-to-touch 2.1 7.2 9.5
5.8 13.3
Surface dry 16.4
Through-dry 9.7 14.5 22.0
Pencil hardness
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC H H H
7 days, ~25oC H-2H H-2H H-2H
Gardner impact, in-lb (J) to fail
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC, reverse/direct 6/42 4/60 4/40
7 days, ~25oC, reverse/direct <4/14 <4/14 <4/20
Taber abrasion, wt. loss, mg, 1,000 cycles,
1,000 g wt. (CS-1 7 wheel)
Cure: 48 hr, ~25oC 294 132 193
7 days, ~25oC 180 137 175
Crosshatch adhesion, %
Cure: 7 days, ~25oC 100 100 100
Gloss, 60o
Cure: 7 days, ~25oC 78 63 97




28
7. Flooring, Troweling and Mortars

7. FLOORING, TROWELING AND MORTARS

An important application area for JEFFAMINE® amines and other Huntsman products is their use in highly-filled
epoxy formulations for industrial or decorative floor coatings. There are two primary types of epoxy flooring
systems: self-leveling and trowel coverings. Epoxy flooring can be as simple as a thin film clear or lightly
pigmented formulation or a series of built-up coating layers. However, most epoxy floors today consist of several
coats, which usually include at least a base coat, mid coat and glaze or topcoat.

Self-leveling floorings have lower filler contents (less that 4:1 filler to epoxy binder), permitting the material to be
spread over the substrate, usually concrete, to a thickness of about 1/8 inch. Such binder rich floorings are more
chemically resistant. Skid or slip resistance may be improved by broadcasting sand or other mineral fillers over
the top of the floor prior to final curing.

Trowelable floorings generally are more highly filled (6-8:1 filler to binder ratios) with a coarse mineral filler, such
as quartz and/or silica sand. These higher filler loadings lead to outstanding abrasion resistance, coupled with
excellent mechanical strength. Such systems are usually screeded or troweled over the substrate to a thickness
of ┬╝ inch or less.

A special type of synthetic epoxy surface is the pebble-finished system, where decorative river rock is used as the
filler at levels of 10-15:1 over the epoxy binder. In these applications the clear epoxy is also a high-gloss coating
or decorative glaze for the aggregate material. These systems are sometimes known as decorative aggregate
and have been popular for interior and exterior applications in flooring, walkways and swimming pool decks.

The performance of an epoxy-based floor system depends on proper selection and formulation of components, as
well as adequate substrate surface preparation. The JEFFAMINE® amine products, along with monononylphenol
(MNP) have found application in all of the above flooring systems. These are often used in combination with
polyamides or cycloaliphatic amine hardeners to achieve certain desired performance characteristics, which
include appearance, chemical resistance, impact resistance and abrasion resistance.

Heavily-filled epoxy systems may be used for structural applications, such as concrete reinforcement. Often
referred to as polymer concrete, these materials are used in applications, such as bridge overlays and other areas
requiring higher compressive strengths than offered by conventional Portland cement concrete. Similar
formulations are also used for tile grouting or mortars and concrete repair.

Repair of cracked concrete structures may be accomplished by injection of clear epoxy systems into the areas
around the developing crack. This is done by injecting a low viscosity, slow-curing epoxy formulation using a
syringe delivery into many, finely-drilled cavities in the vicinity of the crack. The JEFFAMINE® products, such as
D-230, D-400 or T-403 are ideal for such systems, which have the ability to saturate deep into the concrete matrix
before the epoxy matrix begins to gel and finally set or cure. This practice of crack injection has been used in the
repair of concrete buildings, bridges, railroad ties, and dams.

All of the above described applications fall into the broad catefory of contrsuctiuon, or civil engineering. Aside
from surface coatings and adhesives, materials included would be the "synthetic" concretes, mortars, grouts, and
putties. Such materials certainly find extensive use in new construction and various civil engineering applications;
and for patching and repair, they have no peer. Several specific examples follow.




29
7. Flooring, Troweling and Mortars

SEAMLESS FLOORS

Epoxies are eminently suitable for seamless, poured-in-place floors. The following is an example of such a
flooring system.

Pigmented Base Coat
Part 1 ÔÇ? Resin pbw
General purpose epoxy resin, EEW - 188 80
Polyglycol diepoxide, EEW 3201 20
Titanium dioxide pigment 70

Part 2 ÔÇ? Curative
JEFFAMINE® D-230 20
AEP 6.5
Nonylphenol 15
1 D.E.R. 732, Dow Chemical Co



Properties
Gel time, minutes (200-g mass) 36.2
Peak exothermic temperature, oC 51.9
Time to peak temperature, minutes 42.5
Drying time, hr, 8-mil film
Set-to-touch 5.4
Surface-dry 9.0
Thru-dry ~12
Pencil hardness
Cure: 24 hr, ~25oC HB
7 days, ~25oC H

A harder glaze coat is suggested.

Part 1 ÔÇ? Resin pbw
Epoxy resin, EEW ~ 188 100

Part 2 ÔÇ? Curative
JEFFAMINE® D-230 30
Accelerator 399 5
Nonylphenol 5


Brookflied viscosity, cps, ~25oC 800
Gel time, minutes (200-g mass) 39.5
Peak exothermic temperature, oC 200
Time to peak temperature, minutes 47.0
Drying time, her, 6-mil film
Set-to-touch 5.8
Surface-dry 8.1
Thru-dry 11.6
Pencil hardness
Cure: 24 hr, ~25oC F
7 days, ~25oC H




30
7. Flooring, Troweling and Mortars

The system may be applied to new concrete or wood surfaces. Wood surfaces must be clean and free of stains.
Before the base coat is applied to wooden surfaces, seams in the surface should be filled. The base-coat
formulation may serve as a filler. Old concrete should be sandblasted and thoroughly cleaned or, preferably, acid-
etched. Old tile, along with mastic, should be removed and the floor thoroughly cleaned with an abrasive cleanser,
washed with water, and dried before base-coat application. Application of the seamless floor system over old tile
is not recommended.

The viscous, pigmented resin is thoroughly hand-mixed with the hardener component (useful working time after
mixing at ~77oF is about 60 minutes). Then the base coat is applied over the thoroughly cleaned surface. A long-
handled roller is normally used to apply the base coat to a thickness of ~50 mils. Sometimes a serrated trowel is
used to spread the base coat evenly.

As soon as application of the base coat is completed, colored polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chips or other decorative
material, such as colored quartz aggregate, ceramic chips, or sand, is sprinkled on the surface of the base coat.
About 1 pound of vinyl chips per 7 square feet of floor area is required for adequate coverage. The flooring is then
allowed to cure for about 24 hours before application of the first glaze coat.

A light sanding of the dry base coat is required to remove rough spots. After sweeping up loose material, a glaze
coat is applied, again with a roller. This coat is allowed to dry overnight before application of the final glaze coat.
Somewhat smaller amounts of the glaze coat formulation are required for the final application. The final coat will
be completely tack-free and suitable for use in 24 to 48 hours.

SAND-FILLED FLOORING

Floors of this type, where an epoxy matrix is used to bind sand and/or other pigment-like fillers into a monolithic
floor surface, are very popular, especially for industrial areas. Systems can be formulated to give good abrasion
resistance, high impact capacity, easy maintenance, and good chemical resistance.

Several suggested starting formulations are shown below. Two common amine curing agents have been included
for comparison with the JEFFAMINE® products.

Compression strengths are excellent for all five filled systems, especially those cured with JEFFAMINE® D-230 or
the polyamide. However, some processing disadvantages are apparent for the formulations containing the
polyamide or TETA. The viscosity of the unfilled polyamide system is quite high and, as a result, "workability" of
the filled system is poor. "Workability" of the flooring systems is also affected by the gel time of the binder;
because of the short gel time of the TETA-cured binder, working time for the filled flooring system is likely to be in-
sufficient to place and level the system before it hardens.

Formulation, pbw A B C D E
Epoxy resin, EEW ~ 188 100 100 100 100 100
JEFFAMINE® D-230 25 - - - -
JEFFAMINE® D-400 - 44 - - -
JEFFAMINE® T-403 - - 35 - -
Triethylenetetramine (TETA) - - - 10.7 -
Polyamide (amine value 385) - - - - 55.8
Nonylphenol 16 16 16 16 16
N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) 4 4 4 4 4
#3 sand/silica flour, 3/1 pbw 1,160 1,312 1,240 1,046 1,406
Sind/binder ratio, by wt 8/1 8/1 8/1 8/1 8/1
Matrix exothermic data
Brookfield viscosity, cps, 25oC 1,250 1,060 2,360 2,160 8,780
Gel time, minutes (200-g mass) 42.6 88.0 45.4 10.5 37.2
Peak exothermic temperature, oC 196.0 112.0 181.1 230.7 159.1
Time to peak temperature, minutes 50.4 114.7 55.5 15.5 50.2
Compressive strength at failure. psi1 >12,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 >12,000
1Samples: 1 -inch cylinders, 1 -inch diameter. Cure: 7 days, 250C.




31
7. Flooring, Troweling and Mortars

DECORATIVE AGGREGATE

Decorative, or bonded, aggregate refers to composites made by mixing together gravel of various sizes and
colors with an unpigmented epoxy system. The epoxy mix is blended with the rock at a 5 to 6 wt.% level and
formed into various shapes or troweled into place much like concrete.

Decorative aggregate is attractive for several reasons. It has a deep, rich appearance which brings out the
character of the rock, and it is cool to walk on because it is so porous. However, as pointed out earlier, clear
epoxy coatings, as a general rule, do not hold up well in sunlight. Thus, while a decorative aggregate overlay on a
patio or driveway might maintain its structural integrity for a long time, its glossy appearance would be expected to
degrade in a matter of months because of exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation. Furthermore, "whitening"
problems have been reported with bonded aggregate used outdoors for driveways, pool decks, and the like. For
these reasons, we at Huntsman Corporation cannot recommend any clear epoxy system for outdoor application,
whatever the curing agent might be. For indoor applications only, the formulations described below are worth
investigating.

Technical bulletins are available for those wanting more information about decorative aggregate.

Formulation, pbw A B C
Liquid epoxy resin, EEW ~188 100 100 100
JEFFAMINE® D-230 25 25 25
N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) 4 4 4
Nonylphenol 12 26 53

Resin/curing blend volume ratio 2:1 3:2 1:1

Exothermic data1
Brookfield viscosity, cps, ~25oC 1,380 1,660 2,740
Gel time, minutes (200-g mass) 53.5 28.0 22.5
Peak exothermic temperature, oC 187.3 186.5 159.5
Time to peak temperature, minutes 65.6 36.0 31.8

Coating properties, 6-mil film
Drying time, hr
Set-to-touch 5.7 3.0 3.2
Surface-dry 7.9 7.4 5.9
Thru-dry 13.0 12.7 10.0
Pencil hardness
Cure: 24 hr, ~25oC F-H F-H HB-F
7 days, ~25oC H H H
Gardner impact, in-lb to fail
Cure: 24 hr, ~5oC, reverse/direct. <4/14 16/36 160/>160
7 days, ~25oC, reverse/direct <4/18 14/30 140/>160
Crosshatch adhesion, %
Cure: 7 days, ~25oC 100 100 100
Gloss, 60o
Cure: 7 days, ~25oC 111 112 110




32
7. Flooring, Troweling and Mortars


Properties of cured Ôů?-inch castings2 A B C
Izod impact strength, ft-lb/in 1.62 0.30 0.79
Shore D hardness, 0-10 sec 76-74 76-75 71-67
Tensile strength, psi 9,500 9,500 5,800
Tensile modulus, psi 551,000 479,000 330,000
Elongation, % 2.1 2.5 17.1
Flexural strength, psi 13,100 14,400 10,000
Flexural modulus, psi 489,000 465,000 297,000
HDT, oC, 264-psi load 46 45.5 37
Compressive strength3, psi, at yield 14,400 14,400 9,000
at failure 20,900 29,700 29,700

Aggregate properties4
Compressive strength, psi
At 77oF (25oC) 1,200 1,400 1,100
At 0oF 1,300 1,200 1,200
At 120oF 1,300 1,000 300
After 20 freeze-thaw cycles5 800 800 900
Flexural strength, psi 700 580 560
1 Curing blend components (JEFFAMINE® D-230, AEP, and nonylphenl were mixed and allowed to cool to 25oC before the blends were used to develop exothermic data.
2 Cured 7 days, ~25oC.
3 1-inch cylinders, ┬Ż-inch diameter; cured 7 days, ~25oC. Tested at 25oC (77oF).
4 5.25 wt.% binder mixed with rock; cured 7 days, ~25oC
5 Samples dipped in water and chilled over dry ice for 5 hr. Blocks allowed to thaw overnight. Cycle repeated as specified.



POLYMER CONCRETE

Polymer concretes are known for the improvements in strength, durability, and protection they offer over
conventional portland cement concrete (PCC). Unlike polymer-modified PCC, which uses cement and water as a
binder, polymer concrete uses an organic resin matrix as the "glue" to hold the aggregate together in place of the
cementitous binder.

The polymer concrete formulation shown below may be used in repair applications, such as overlays and
patching operations, in original applications where high strength to weight ratios are required, or in precast
products. The low viscosity and low volatility of this binder formulation and the well-known stability and strength of
epoxy systems make this an interesting polymer concrete system. Development of compressive strength is
illustrated in Figure 7.1.

Binder formulation pbw
Liquid epoxy resin (EEW 188) 100
JEFFAMINE® D-230 32
Accelerator 399 20

Graded aggregate mix wt.%
Aggregate, 3/8-in 60
Coarse sand 30
Fly ash 10

Filler binder ratio is 11:1 pbw.




33
7. Flooring, Troweling and Mortars



Epoxy Portland Cement
Properties Concrete Concrete
Compressive strength, psi 13,900 3,000-5,000
3.7 x 106 3-4 x 106
Compressive modulus, psi
Flexural strength, psi 2,950 410-530
Coefficient of thermal expansion, in/in X 10-6
At 40oF 3.97 5.5
At 80oF 8.26 5.5
At 120oF 13.1 5.5
At 158oF 17.6 5.5
Plastic shrinkage, in/in 0.0006 0.0002-0.0006
Sandblast abrasion,
wt. loss, g
Dry 0.26 2.81
Wet 0.76 5.41



Properties of Polymer Concrete Overlays on
Portland Cement Concrete (PCC)
>6401
Flexural bond strength, psi
Shear bond strength, psi
7901
Dry substrate
610-7902
Wet substrate
4903
After 50 freeze-thaw cycles
1 100% failure in PCC
2 25-100% failure in PCC.
3 50% failure in PCC.




34
7. Flooring, Troweling and Mortars

Figure 7.1
Development of Compressive Strength in Polymer Concrete Cured at
Various Temperatures with JEFFAMINE D-30




35
7. Flooring, Troweling and Mortars

TROWEL COATINGS

A formulation useful for coating concrete surfaces, bonding old concrete surfaces to new, topping floors subjected
to heavy wear, and coating splash-zone areas of marine structures is given below. The material is thixotropic, so
it can be applied to vertical surfaces where it may be used to imbed aggregate.

Component 1 pbw
Epoxy resin, EEW i88 100
Clay1 80

Component 2
JEFFAMINE D-400 55
Cab-O-SiI M-52 17

Component 3
Accelerator 399 20
1 Calcined kaolin type, e.g., Glomax LL, Georgia Kaolin Co.
2 Cabot Corp.



The clay must be dispersed thoroughly into the epoxy resin. A pigment, if required, should be dispersed along
with the clay. Finely divided white sand, calcium carbonate, or other filler materials may be substituted for clay.
The Cab-O-Sil should be dispersed into the JEFFAMINE® component. A high-speed Cowles mixer will be
required to satisfactorily disperse these components. After proper mixing, the amine/Cab-O-Sil should be a
viscous liquid. Components 1 and 2 should be mixed thoroughly. Pot life of this mixture is 6 to 10 hours. When
ready to apply to a concrete surface, add component 3. A gel-like material will instantly form. The material may
then be troweled onto vertical or horizontal surfaces to the thickness desired.

Properties of cured Ôů?-inch casting'
Izod impact strength, ft-lb/in 0.31
Shore D hardness 82-76
Ultimate elongation, % 90
Flexural strength, psi 3,700
Flexural modulus, psi 207,000
Compressive strength (ultimate), psi 42,500
1Cast in open-face mold; cured 7 days at room temperature.



WOOD CONSOLIDATION

Old and rotting wood may be "consolidated"-that is, reinforced, filled in, and preserved-by saturation with the
following mixture.

Part 1- Resin pbw
Epoxy resin1 6
1,2-Butanediol diglycidyl ether, EEW 134 3

Part 2-Curative
JEFFAMINE D-230 4
1 Low-viscosity resin, 4,000-6,000 cps, EEW 172-176.



This consolidant has a pot life of ~2 hours and will hold its shape after 24 hours at 70oF. For details on the fine art
of wood consolidation, see Ref. 391 in Bibliography.




36
8. Reinforced Composites

8. REINFORCED COMPOSITES

Cured epoxy resins are ideal agents for bonding reinforcing fibers of all kinds, notably glass, graphite, and
synthetics. The term ÔÇťadvancedÔÇ? composites is sometimes used to distinguish composites in which reinforcing
fibers are continuous instead of chopped. Cured epoxy resins are used as matrix resins for advanced composites
in a variety of applications.

A good example of an advanced composite application is pressure vessels, used as, for example, fuel tanks in
natural gas-fueled vehicles. These are commonly fabricated by winding resin-soaked fibers around a cylindrical
form, or mandrel. Light weight and good impact resistance are desirable features in this use.

Certain JEFFAMINE® amines are ideally suited for use in composites. They are of low viscosity, resulting in good
fiber wetting and minimum bubble retention; they cure slowly enough to allow sufficient working time; and epoxy
resins cured with them bond exceptionally well to the fibers. DelaminationÔłĺa problem with reinforced
compositesÔłĺis thus minimized.

Cured resin properties are generally suitable as well. The flexible polyether backbone gives elongation values of
10% or higher. Tensile strengths in the 8,000-10,000 psi range, and flexural modulus values of around 400,000
psi or higher are typical. These high elongations are associated with very good toughness and ductility, giving
good damage tolerance and reducing the risk of catastrophic failure that might occur with more brittle systems.
Cures with JEFFAMINE® amines generally give lower Tg values than some other curing agents--with T-403, for
example, and a standard liquid bisphenol A resin, the Tg is around 90┬░C (195┬░F). If a higher Tg is required, other
amines can be blended with the JEFFAMINE® amines. Cycloaliphatic amines, such as isophoronediamine
(IPDA), have been used in blends with JEFFAMINE® D-230 and T-403 amines to increase the Tg of cured
epoxies for some applications. In general, increasing the ratio of cycloaliphatic amine to polyetheramine gives
higher Tg, but lower elongation and impact strength, so an appropriate balance between can be chosen (see table
below).

Composite Formulations

Epoxy Resin 9000-1000 cps; EEW 176-183 A B C D E
JEFFAMINE® T-403 45 33 16
JEFFAMINE® D-230 32 25
IPDA 7 16 5
Properties of cured Ôů?-inch castings1
1,570 1,090 1,190 320 620
Viscosity (~25┬░C), cps (= MPaÔőůs)
Tg, ┬░C (DSC) 93 107 130 90 98
Flexural Strength, psi 15,900 17,100 18,200 14,800 19,000
(MPa) (110) (118) (125) (102) (131)
Flexural modulus, psi 404,000 404,000 402,000 455,000 490,000
(GPa) (2.78) (2.78) (2.77) (3.14) (3.38)
Tensile strength, psi 9,100 9,800 11,000 9,700 10,700
(MPa) (62.7) (67.6) (75.8) (66.9) (73.8)
Izod impact strength, ft-lb/in 0.90 0.58 0.45 1.3 1.5
(cm-kg/cm) (4.90) (3.16) (2.45) (7.08) (8.17)
Elongation, % 12.0 11.5 10.0 10.0 8.0
1 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr, 125oC.




37
8. Reinforced Composites

APPLICATION EXAMPLES

WIND TURBINE BLADES

Reinforced composites are ideal materials for replacing metals in the construction of blades that spin to propel
aircrafts or generate electricity. Although the process for making such blades is complex, the epoxy matrix may be
as simple or as complicated as the formulator may desire. Because of the unique properties of the JEFFAMINE®
products mentioned above, a simple two-component system may suffice. The simplest system would be:

Part 1- Resin pbw
Epoxy resin, EEW ~188 100

Part 2-Curative
JEFFAMINE D-230 32

Such wind-powered electrical generators have been made with blade diameters ranging from a few feet to more
than 250 feet. Top-coated with a tough urethane finish, large-diameter composite blades have turned generators
continuously for years, while aluminum blades have succumbed to stress after only a few months of service.

FILAMENT-WOUND TANKS AND PIPING

The following formulation has been suggested by workers at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (see numerous
references in Bibliography) for the manufacture of filament-wound objects, such as tanks.

Part 1- Resin pbw
Epoxy resin1 100

Part 2-Curative
JEFFAMINE® T-403 46

1 Low-viscosity resin, 4,000-6,000 cps, EEW 172-176.



For advanced fiber composites, a mismatch of thermal coefficient of expansion exists between the fiber and the
matrix during a high-temperature-cure cycle, frequently resulting in delamination or fiber ÔÇťmicrobuckling."
Moderate-temperature cure is therefore desirable.

The system presented above has mechanical properties that are well-balanced for filament winding ÔÇ? tensile and
flexural strength and modulus are good, and elongation and impact strength are higher than those seen with
many other epoxy formulations. With low viscosity and a moderate pot life, it presents no processing problems in
filament winding. The big advantage of this technique over metal for tanks and piping is no corrosion.

A unique composite application for the above formulation has been reported to be in stainless steel fiber/ organic
matrix composites for cryogenic use (Ref. 502). This system has the distinct advantage that its thermal expansion
characteristics are quite close to those of copper.

BOATS

Quality boats-racing sailboats, kayaks, canoes-are ideal subjects for epoxy systems cured with JEFFAMINE®
PEA. Canoes, for example, have been made from this system.

Part 1- Resin pbw
Epoxy resin, EEW ~188 100

Part 2-Curative
JEFFAMINE® D-230 30
Accelerator 399 10




38
8. Reinforced Composites

The amount of the Accelerator 399 can be adjusted to obtain the desired pot life. Of course, for longest pot life,
no accelerator is used at all, and the system below may be useful for fabrication techniques such as vacuum
bagging where longer working time is desirable.

Part 1- Resin pbw
Epoxy resin1 100

Part 2-Curative
JEFFAMINE® T-403 44
1 Medium-viscosity resin, 7,000-10,000 cps, EEW 177-188.



This simple system is of low viscosity and wets the fiber network well. Working time should be adequate to meet
most demands.

Cure time would be 16 hours at 60oC, or only 1 hour at 120oC. (Oven curing is common with composites.)




39
9. Casting and Encapsulation

9. CASTING AND ENCAPSULATION

The terms "encapsulation,ÔÇ? "casting," and "potting" differ slightly in meaning but are frequently used
interchangeably in practice. An encapsulated object is totally enclosed in some medium. Potting usually refers to
a system in which there is a container around an encapsulated part. A casting has no container, but may be
poured into a void, such as a mold, and then removed after complete curing.

Casting or potting systems require low exothermic reactions of the epoxy system to avoid overheating. Clarity,
minimum shrinkage and good thermal shock resistance are the result of controlling exotherm. These criteria may
be met with many of the JEFFAMINE® amine curing agents, such as JEFFAMINE® D-230, D-400 or T-403
amines.
Part 1-Resin Pbw
Epoxy resin1 100

Part 2-Curative
JEFFAMINE® D-230 32
Accelerator 399 0-5
1 Low-viscosity resin, 4,000-6,000 cps, EEW 172-176.



The use of accelerators should be minimized in order to optimize properties, but small amounts may be added to
adjust curing schedules, depending on the size of the casting or potted part. A simple kind of formulation, like the
one above, will exhibit very little of the shrinkage, which is a problem with many amine curing agents.

An important use for epoxies is in the potting of electrical and electronic components. These parts are protected
from moisture, as well as thermal and mechanical shock, such as those experienced in airplane or automobile
motors. The versatility of the JEFFAMINE® curing agents in this application is evident from the formulations
shown in Table XX and shown briefly below:

Pbw
General-purpose epoxy resin,
EEW -188 (Araldite GY-6010) 100 100 100 100
JEFFAMINE® D-230 32 - - -
JEFFAMINE® D-400 - 55 - 50
JEFFAMINE® T-403 - - 42 -
JEFFAMINE® D-2000 - - - 25

Thus, the formulator can vary hardness, curing time, impact strength, etc., over a wide range, without sacrificing
electrical properties.

Suggestion: Include JEFFAMINE® T-5000 to improve thermal and mechanical shock resistance in the first and
third formulation in the table.

Note: "Anhydride" curing agents have traditionally been used for electrical potting. Their advantages are mild
exothermic reactions, usefulness over a wide range of concentrations, and outstanding electrical properties; their
disadvantages are that they are solids or viscous liquids, formulations require a high-temperature cure, and they
tend to be brittle.

For larger mass castings, the use of accelerators is not recommended, but the addition of large amounts of fillers,
which serve as heat sinks and also reduce costs, are usually added. These types of castings may be used as
stamping molds for automotive parts. One formulation used a mixture of JEFFAMINE® D-400 and T-403 amines
as the only curing agent, along with a standard epoxy resin and 65% by weight of fillers, consisting of various
sizes of minerals, such that they would pack well into the composite matrix. Such castings have good impact
strength, abrasion resistance and may be used several times for stamping out prototype automotive parts.




40
9. Casting and Encapsulation

Another popular type of potting system is the encapsulation of artificial flowers in a glass vase with a clear epoxy
formulation, which resembles the presence of water. These products may be used for long periods of time as
decorations for tables in restaurants, hotels and private homes. In such formulations the JEFFAMINE® amine
products, such as D-230, D-400 and T-403 are used with a very clear and low-color epoxy resin. These un-
accelerated systems are ideal for keeping the exothermic heat of cure to a minimum, and avoiding shrinkage,
which may cause the glass vase to fracture. Some formulations may be prepared by going off ratio 10-15% in the
direction of excess epoxy or curing agent to prevent these problems. Most of these systems have good color
stability for long periods, but those using JEFFAMINE® T-403 amines are superior.




41
10. Adhesives


10. ADHESIVES

In general, epoxies are outstanding adhesives. Most of the formulations presented in this manual up to this point
could be looked upon as "adhesive" because their adhesion to a substrate is a necessary requirement for
success in any particular application. For example, bonding (adhesion) is all-important with decorative aggregate,
encapsulation, and advanced fiber composites.

An adhesives formulator who wishes to try a JEFFAMINE® PEA in a formulation should first consult the
appropriate basic data presented in previous sections to arrive at appropriate gel times, viscosities, mix ratios,
etc. Once a basic recipe is selected, it may be modified in a myriad of ways to meet the formulator's needs. Thus,
a formulation may be thickened with fumed silica, metallized with metal powders, made conductive with graphite,
extended with fillers, or colored with pigments or dyes.

But no discussion of epoxy adhesives would be complete without pointing out that adhesion can be greatly
enhanced by inclusion of several JEFFAMINE® PEAs, the most notable being JEFFAMINE® T-5000 amine. The
latter is a trifunctional primary amine of ~5000 molecular weight with a viscosity of ~900 cps (MPa's) at 25┬░C. The
value of this material as an adhesion promoter is evident from this comparison.

Formulation, pbw A B
Epoxy resin, EEW ~188 100 100
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 32 30.6
Accelerator 399 10 10
JEFFAMINE® T-5000 amine - 13.2

Adhesive Properties1
Tensile shear strength, psi (MPa) 1,100 (7.58) 4,000 (27.6)
T-peel strength, pli (N/M) 3.2 (559) 16.7 (2,930)
1 Cure: 7 days, ~25oC.



JEFFAMINE® T-5000 amine may function as an adhesion promoter equally well in epoxy systems cured with
amines other than the JEFFAMINE® products. Improvements in adhesion and thermal shock properties can be
expected, if the additive becomes insoluble in the system as it cures, resulting in phase separation and the
formation of "microvoids." The importance of microvoids in such systems has been discussed at length (Ref. 66,
340, 445). More extensive data for epoxy formulations modified with JEFFAMINE® T-5000 amine are available in
our brochure ÔÇťAdhesion Properties of Epoxy Formulations,ÔÇ? available at www.jeffamine.com (select ÔÇťepoxy
applications,ÔÇ? then ÔÇťepoxy related technical documentsÔÇ?).

XTJ-504 and XTJ-590 can be used to make ultra fast curing adhesives without compromising flexibility or
adhesion. Cure rates are generally 3-4 times as fast as using JEFFAMINE® D-230 alone.




42
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

11. CURED PROPERTIES REFERENCE GUIDE

PROPERTIES OF EPOXY RESINS CURED WITH JEFFAMINE® PEA

A review of properties obtained by curing epoxy resins with JEFFAMINE® products under a variety of conditions
follows. A few other common amine curing agents have been included for comparison. Results are typical of data
obtained from laboratory testing and demonstrate certain properties that may be obtained with polyetheramine-
cured formulations. The curing systems chosen for inclusion in this section are not intended for specific
applications, but indicate that values obtained with JEFFAMINE® curatives compare favorably with, and in many
cases exceed, those obtained with other curatives.

FLEXURAL STRENGTH AND MODULUS

ASTM D 790 (ERF 5-82)-"Flexural strength" is a measure of the ability of a material to withstand failure due to
bending. Values obtained for flexural strength and modulus (stress/strain in the initial, elastic region) for
formulations cured with JEFFAMINE® PEA, shown in Table 11.1, are equivalent to those obtained with other
curatives when curing is carried out at an elevated temperature. Formulations based on JEFFAMINE® curatives
do not develop the brittleness found with many formulations cured at ambient temperatures.

A complete range of modulus values may be obtained by use of the JEFFAMINE® products alone or in blends
with several of the more flexibilizing JEFFAMINE® products.

Table 11.1 - Flexural Strength and Modulus1

Curative
Concentration Conditions Flexural Strength, Flexural Modulus,
phr2 psi (kg/cm2) psi (kg/cm2)
Curative of Cure
3
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 32 14,900 (1,040) 429,000 (29,900)
325 4
15,500 (1,090) 534,000 (37,400)
3
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine 55 12,900 (900) 460,000 (32,100)
555 4
8,700 (610) 286,000 (20,000)
3
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine 42 15,500 (1,080) 437,000 (30,500)
425 4
16,400 (1,150) 520,000 (36,400)
3
JEFFAMINE® D-400/D-2000 amine 50/25 970 (66) 42,000 (3,000)
3
Diethylenetriamine (DETA) 11 14,200 (990) 380,000 (26,600)
6
11 17,000 (1,190) 523,000 (36,600)
3
Polyamide (amine value 385) 52 13,400 (940) 380,000 (23,300)
4
52 13,600 (950) 376,000 (26,300)
3
N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) 23 13,000 (910) 342,000 (23,900)
1 Sample size: 1/8 x ┬Ż x 5 in. Instron crosshead speed: 0.1 in/min (2.54 mm/min) or 0.5 in/min (12.7 mm/min).
2 General purpose epoxy resin e.g. ARALDITE® GY 6010 epoxy, EEW~188.
3 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr, 125oC.
4 Cured 7 days, ~25oC.
5 With 10 phr Accelerator 399.
6 Cured 28 days, ~25oC. Sample was brittle when tested at 7 and 21 days.




43
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

TENSILE STRENGTH AND MODULUS

ASTM D 638 (ERF 6-82)-Tensile strength (nominal) is the highest load achievable, divided by the original cross-
sectional area of the sample, when it is pulled apart. Excellent values of tensile strength and modulus
(stress/strain in the initial, elastic region) may be obtained with JEFFAMINE® curatives (Table 11.2). Results
obtained with JEFFAMINE® amine-containing formulations cured at ambient temperature with accelerators are
near those obtained with elevated-temperature curing. Values obtained with competitive curing agents vary
widely, depending on the method of cure. The extreme brittleness encountered with DETA at ambient
temperature is the result of "B-staging," or incomplete cure, a common occurrence with curing agents of low
molecular weight.

Table 11.2 - Tensile Strength and Modulus1

Curative
Concentration Conditions Tensile Strength, Tensile Modulus,
phr2
Curative of Cure psi (MPa) psi (GPa)
3
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 32 9,400 (64.8) 392,000 (2.70)
325 4
10,200 (70.3) 500,000 (3.45)
3
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine 55 7,600 (52.4) 390,000 (2.69)
555 4
5,100 (35.2) 300,000 (2.07)
3
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine 42 9,500 (65.5) 418,000 (2.88)
425 4
10,200 (70.3) 510,000 (3.52)
3
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine 50/25 1,700 (11.7) 30,500 (0.21)
50/255 4
JEFFAMINE® D-2000 amine 1,700 (11.7) -
3
Diethylenetriamine (DETA) 11 7,600 (52.4) 391,000 (2.70)
6
11 8,800 (60.7) 560,000 (3.86)
3
Polyamide (amine value 385) 52 7,800 (53.8) 370,000 (2.55)
4
52 7,900 (54.5) 311,000 (2.14)
3
N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) 23 9,200 (63.4) 342,000 (2.36)
1 Sample size: Type 1 dimensions. Instron crosshead speed: 0.2 in/min. (5.08 mm/min.)
2 General-purpose epoxy resin, EEW ~188, i.e. Araldite GY-6010.
3 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr, 125oC.
4 Cured 7 days, ~25oC.
5 With 10 phr Accelerator 399.
6 Cured 28 days, ~25oC. Sample was brittle when tested at 7 and 21 days.



IMPACT RESISTANCE

Two very different approaches were used. One is the Izod method and the other uses the Dynatup® drop weight
impact tester.1

In the Izod method, ASTM D-256 (ERF 33-82), impact testing is carried out with a pendulum-type device where
the test specimen (Figure 11.1) is positioned as a cantilever beam with the notched side facing the striker. Five
samples of each formulation are tested, with the average value being recorded as the notched Izod impact
strength.
1 Instron Corporation, Canton, Massachusetts.




44
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

Figure 11.1
Izod Test Specimen




Results, shown in Table 11.3, indicate that curing with the JEFFAMINE® products at an elevated temperature is
required to develop ultimate impact values. Izod impact resistance is low for DETA and the polyamide selected
for testing. Moderate impact values are obtained for samples cured with JEFFAMINE® D-400, D-230, or T-403
amines. Incorporating JEFFAMINE® D-2000 amine for a more flexible formulation can result in cured systems
with higher impact values.




45
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

Table 11.3 - Izod Impact Resistance (Notched)

Izod Impact
Curative Strength,
Curative Conditions
Concentration, ft-lb/in
phr1 of Cure (cm-kg/cm)
2
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 32 1.10 (5.99)
324 3
0.28 (1.53)
2
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine 55 0.41 (2.23)
554 3
1.50 (8.17)
® 2
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine 42 0.90 (4.90)
424 3
0.35 (1.91)
2
JEFFAMINE® D-400/D-2000 50/25 7.80 (42.57)
amines
2
Diethylenetriamine (DETA) 11 0.42 (2.29)
5
11 0.40 (2.18)
2
Polyamide (amine value 385) 52 0.51 (2.78)
3
52 0.58 (3.16)
2
N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) 23 1.65 (8.99)
1 General-purpose epoxy resin, EEW ~188.
2 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr, 125oC.
3 Cured 7 days, ~25oC.
4 With 10 phr Accelerator 399.
5 Cured 28 days, ~25oC. Sample brittle when tested at 7 and 21 days.



The test method utilized in the USA is ASTM D256. The result of the Izod test is reported in energy lost (ft-lb or J)
per unit of specimen thickness (cm or in) at the notch in Figure 11.1

Additionally, the results may be reported as energy lost per unit cross-sectional area at the notch (J/m┬▓ or ft-lb/in┬▓).

In Europe, ISO 180 methods are used and results reported based only on the cross-sectional area at the notch
(J/m┬▓).

The second method for measuring impact resistance involves a Dynatup® instrumented impact tester, an
instrument capable of providing considerable insight into the nature of impact fracturing of plastic materials. This
device may be used to test a wide variety of samples of differing geometry, size, and orientation. A "tup," which is
dropped onto the test sample, can be adjusted to provide impact velocities from 30 to 32,000 inches per minute.
An environmental chamber is available for performing tests over a range of temperatures.

The instrument develops a graphic picture of the impact process. Information concerning energy, loading force,
and displacement at yield and at break is presented in a force/displacement curve such as the typical graph
shown in Figure 11.2. The slope of the force/displacement curve indicates impact modulus. As the drawing
illustrates, with initial impact of the tup with the test sample, there is application of an increasing load. If the
material is brittle, as many thermosetting polymers are, the load will increase rapidly. As the force applied begins
to exceed the strength of the test part, cracks will develop, causing a decrease in load. Conditions may stabilize
with further tup penetration, allowing further loading to occur before multi-crack development, crack growth, and
ultimate failure of the impacted test sample occur.




46
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

Figure 11.2
Typical Force/Displacement Curve ÔÇ? Impact Tester




Impact on plastic materials or composites can produce either brittle or ductile failure, with most materials falling
somewhere in between the two extremes. Two typical load/deflection curves are shown in Figure 11.3.

Brittle failure may occur at deflections before maximum load and at relatively low deflections, as when a glass-like
material shatters. In contrast, ductile failure occurs at relatively high deflections that may be beyond maximum
load, as when a piece of vinyl is impacted. The area under the stress-strain curve typically increases when a
material begins to exhibit ductile failure and may be taken as a measure of the materialÔÇÖs "toughness".

The Dynatup® impact tester may be used for many types of evaluations, i.e., design characteristics, quality
control, or material behavior. With epoxy curing agents, comparisons may be made as to the ability of cured resin
systems to withstand impact stresses. Such comparisons are graphically illustrated in Figure 11.4 for a number of
widely used epoxy curatives. (The graphs are from simple formulations consisting of a standard resin and
stoichiometric amounts of the amine curatives. Cure conditions: 2 hr, 80┬░C; 3 hr, 125┬░C.) Impact testing of the
non-reinforced epoxy panels indicates large differences in impact behavior. For example, a formulation cured
with an amine known to provide a rather brittle epoxy system --diethylenetriamine (DETA)--fails under minimal
impact loading. A polyamide-cured system also fails at a low loading. Offering large improvements in impact
resistance over DETA and the polyamide are the JEFFAMINE┬« PEAÔÇÖs with the shortest polyether backbone
chains (ÔÇťD-230ÔÇ? and ÔÇťT-403ÔÇ?) and N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP). All three provide a moderate degree of impact
resistance. Use of the higher molecular weight JEFFAMINE® amines results in considerably higher impact
resistance because of the greater flexibility of polymers made using these amines. In general, epoxy systems
cured with the JEFFAMINE┬« PEAÔÇÖs offer outstanding resistance to impact.




47
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

Figure 11.3
Types of Fracture-Dynatup® Impact Tester




Figure 11.4
Impact Behavior of an Epoxy Resin Cured with Various Amines-Dynatup® Impact tester

JEFFAMINE® D-230
JEFFAMINE® T-403
JEFFAMINE® D-400
JEFFAMINE® D-400/D-2000 (2:1 Blend)
DETA
POLYAMIDE
AEP




48
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE

The resistance of a material to fracture upon exposure to large, quick temperature changes is an important
attribute of that material in certain applications. For example, an epoxy used to encapsulate an electrical part for
a jet airplane must withstand repeated thermal cycling. One of the outstanding features of the JEFFAMINE®
polyoxypropyleneamine is the thermal shock resistance they bring to epoxy systems, as demonstrated by the
simple "washer test" described below.

Test samples (Figure 11.5) are prepared by encapsulating a steel washer (outside diameter 1 inch, inside
diameter 3/8-inch, thickness 1/16-inch, zinc coated, weight 6-7 grams) resting on a ┬╝ -inch ring of filter paper cut
from a 19 x 19-cm cellulose extraction thimble centered inside an aluminum evaporating dish. Ten test samples of
each formulation are cured under specified conditions and then removed from the aluminum dishes. These
samples are subjected to the following thermal cycle:

1. Specimens are placed in a mechanical convection oven at 140oC for 1/2 hour.
2. Samples are removed from the oven and immediately plunged into a dry ice-acetone bath maintained at
-40oC. Residence time in the bath is fifteen minutes.
3. After removal from the bath, samples are conditioned at ambient temperature for fifteen minutes. Each
specimen is examined for internal cracking and, if no cracks have formed, samples are recycled. Results are
reported after 10 cycles.

Other thermal cycles, more or less severe, may be used to indicate performance characteristics of various
formulations.

Figure 11.5
Thermal Shock Test Sample




49
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

Some washer test results are shown in Table 11.4. They indicate superior thermal shock resistance for samples
cured with any of the JEFFAMINE® amine products. With only one exception, samples prepared with other
curatives shatter severely after only one cycle.

Of significance is the fact that inclusion of Accelerator 399 at a 10-phr level has only a minor effect on thermal
shock properties of the polyetheramine-based systems in Table 11.4.

Inclusion of another JEFFAMINE┬« amine, designated ÔÇťT-5000ÔÇ?, in formulations like those in Table 11.4, often
results in improved thermal shock resistance due to the phase separation, or micro-void formation, related to its
high molecular weight. With this additive, cracking may be prevented under conditions more severe than those
described on page 49. For more details about JEFFAMINE® T-5000, contact our technical service representative
or any of the sales offices listed on the inside of the back cover.


Table 11.4 - Thermal Shock Properties

Number of Samples
Curative Cracked During Each
Curative
Conditions of Total Samples
Concentration, Cycle
phr1 Cure Cycle: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cracked
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 2
32 0210 0 0 01 0 0 4
3
32 0100 0 0 00 0 1 2
324 2
0001 3 0 11 1 0 7
® 2
JEFFAMINE D-400 amine 55 0002 1 0 11 1 0 6
3
55 0012 1 0 00 0 2 6
554 2
2011 0 2 10 0 0 7
® 2
JEFFAMINE T-403 amine 42 0011 0 0 00 0 1 3
3
42 1000 0 2 00 0 0 3
424 2
0010 0 0 01 0 0 2
® 2
JEFFAMINE 50/25 0000 3 1 00 0 3 7
3
D-400/D-2000 amines 50/25 0020 2 1 01 0 0 6
50/254 2
0013 0 1 01 0 0 6
2
Diethylenetriamine (DETA) 11 10 - - - - - -- - - 10
3
11 10 - - - - - -- - - 10
2
Polyamide (amine value 52 6201 1 - -- - - 10
3
385) 52 10 - - - - - -- - - 10
2
N-aminoethylpiperazine 23 10 - - - - - -- - - 10
3
(AEP) 23 10 - - - - - -- - - 10



1 General-purpose epoxy resin, EEW ~188.
2 Cured 7 days, ~25oC.
3 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr, 125oC.
4 With 10 phr Accelerator 399.




50
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

HEAT DISTORTION TEMPERATURE (HDT)

ASTM D 648 (ERF 17-82)-The temperature at which a polymer sample distorts or deflects under load upon
heating under specified conditions is called the heat distortion temperature. This property, HDT, may be
important if a manufactured part is to be subjected to elevated temperatures.

Low-to-moderate HDT values are developed upon curing epoxy resins with JEFFAMINE® PEA at an elevated
temperature. Rather low values can be expected with ambient curing. Typical results are shown in Table 11.5.
JEFFAMINE® amines may be blended with other amine curing agents to obtain cured systems with higher HDT
and Tg (glass transition temperature) values (Tables 5.3 through 5.5). Curing multifunctional epoxy resins, rather
than di-functional resins, with JEFFAMINE® products also increases the HDT values of the final polymer.

Table 11.5 - Heat Distortion Temperature

Curative Heat Distortion
Conditions of
Concentration, Temperature,
phr1
Curative Cure 264-psi load
o o
C F
2
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 32 80 176
324 3
58 136
2
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine 55 43 109
554 3
36 97
2
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine 42 83 181
424 3
47 117
2
JEFFAMINE® D-400/ D-2000 amines 50/25 25 77
2
Diethylenetriamine (DETA) 11 128 262
5
11 55 131
2
Polyamide (amine value 385) 52 67 152
3
52 48 118
2
N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) 23 106 223

1 General-purpose epoxy resin, EEW ~188.
2 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr, 125oC.
3 Cured 7 days, ~25oC.
4 With 10 phr Accelerator 399.
5 Cured 28 days, ~25oC. Sample brittle at 7 days.



GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE (Tg)

In addition to HDT, a related property that can be used to assess the extent of cure or cross-linking is the glass
transition temperature (Tg) The Tg of a polymer may be defined as the mid-point of the temperature range over
which an amorphous (glassy, non-crystalline) plastic goes from being relatively hard and rigid to being relatively
flexible (i.e., from glassy to rubbery). Much formulation of epoxy systems involves varying combinations of
different amine hardeners to change the Tg of the plastic, thus modifying its properties. Although some
formulators may not actually use or think in terms of Tg directly, understanding the relationship between a
polymerÔÇÖs Tg and its mechanical properties can aid in solving formulation problems.

During the past thirty years, a variety of instruments have become widely available that allow one to measure the
Tg of a polymer using several different methods. Among the most commonly used instruments are the Differential
Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), the Thermomechanical Analyzer (TMA), the Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA),
and the Dynamic Mechanical Spectrometer (DMS). The Tg value obtained for a given polymer is somewhat
method and rate dependent. Generally speaking, Tg's will "track" HDT.




51
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

ASTM D 695 (ERF 8-82)-Compressive strength is the force required to crush a material. Test samples are
cylindrical in shape, ┬Ż inch in diameter, and 1 inch in length. Both compressive yield strength (the stress at yield
point or at the point at which an increase in strain first occurs without a corresponding increase in stress) and
ultimate compressive strength (the maximum compressive stress applied during testing) may be measured by this
test method.

It is evident from the series of ultimate compressive strength values given in Table 11.6 that compressive values
for an epoxy resin cured with the JEFFAMINE® products are high. As expected, slightly higher values are
obtained for those systems cured at an elevated temperature. Values obtained by curing with JEFFAMINE®
products are equivalent to or higher than those obtained with other curing agents. Interestingly, use of an amine
blend (ÔÇťD-400ÔÇ? & ÔÇŁD-2000ÔÇ?) results in cured samples that can be compressed to <10% of their original length
without rupture and which return to their original length upon release of stress.

Table 11.6 - Compressive Strength

Curative Ultimate
Concentration, Conditions of Compression Compressive
phr1
Curative Strength, psi (MPa)
Cure Yield, Psi (MPa)
2
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 32 14,300 (98.6) 35,000 (241)
324 3
12,500 (86.2) 23,500 (162)
2
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine 55 9,700 (66.9) 30,000 (207)
554 3
5,400 (37.2) 35,000 (241)
2
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine 42 11,700 (80.7) 41,000 (283)
424 3
11,200 (77.2) 23,000 (1,600)
2
JEFFAMINE® D-400/D-2000 50/25 37,000 (255) 37,000 (255)
50/254 3
amines 42,800 (295) 43,300 (159)
2
Diethylenetriamine (DETA) 11 14,700 (101) 35,800 (247)
5
11 15,100 (104) 19,000 (131)
2
Polyamide (amine value 385) 52 10,000 (68.9) 36,000 (248)
3
52 10,600 (73.1) 19,000 (131)
2
N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) 23 12,300 (84.8) 36,000 (248)
6
23 8,000 (55.2) 8,000 (55.2)

1 General-purpose epoxy resin, EEW ~188.
2 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr, 125oC.
3 Cured 7 days, ~25oC.
4 With 10 phr Accelerator 399.
5 Cured 14 days, ~25oC.
6 Cured 28 days, ~25oC.



ADHESIVE PROPERTIES

To test adhesion properties of epoxy systems, we prefer two procedures: tensile shear strength (lap shear),
conducted according to ASTM D 1002 (ERF 15-82); and peel strength (T-peel), measured by ASTM D 1876.
Tensile shear measures the degree of adhesion to a substrate and the rigidity of the bond. The strength required
to pull the specimen apart in the direction shown in Figure 11.6A is measured. On the other hand, in the T-peel
test (specimen shown in Figure 11.6B), strips of flexible aluminum are joined and peeled apart in a tensile tester.
The force needed to separate the strips is a measure of the peel strength.




52
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

Figure 11.6 A & B
Adhesion Test Specimens




Tensile shear values obtained by curing with JEFFAMINE® PEA are quite high when samples are cured at an
elevated temperature, while values are considerably reduced for bonds cured under ambient conditions (Table
11.7). This is also the case for other amine curatives. More-elastomeric formulations, e.g., one cured with a
blend of JEFFAMINE® D-400 and D-2000 amines, result in moderate values of tensile shear regardless of the
method of cure.

Peel strength values are generally low for the more rigid systems. However, a flexible formulation cured with a
blend of JEFFAMINE® D-400 and D-2000 amines exhibits peel strength values that are quite high.

Over what range of temperatures might adhesives based on the PEA be useful? Tensile shear testing throws light
on this question; test results for systems cured with neat PEA are shown graphically in Figure 11.7. Note that
systems based on JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine and JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine maintain their strength well up to
at least 60oC. With JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine, shear strength drops off sharply above about 40oC. With the
inclusion of JEFFAMINE® D-2000 amine, shear strengths are outstanding below room temperature, but not
above.
Table 11.7 - Adhesion Properties

Curative Tensile Shear Peel
Concentration, Strength, Strength,
Conditions
phr1
Curative of Cure Psi (MPa) pli (GPa)
® 2
JEFFAMINE D-230 amine 32 4,000 (280) 2.0 (0.36)
324 3
970 (68) 3.5 (0.62)
JEFFAMINE® D-400 amine 2
55 3,900 (274) 4.7 (0.84)
554 3
3,100 (217) 2.5 (0.45)
® 2
JEFFAMINE T-403 amine 42 3,500 (245) 2.0 (0.36)
424 3
1,100 (77) 3.6 (0.64)
® 2
JEFFAMINE D-400/D-2000 amines 50/15 1,600 (112) 15.9 (2.84)
50/254 3
1,100 (77) 21.1 (3.77)
2
Diethylenetriamine (DETA) 11 1,600 (112) ÔÇ?
5
11 900 (63) 0.6 (0.11)
2
Polyamide (amine value 385) 52 2,700 (190) 3.9 (0.70)
3
52 2,400 (170) 2.3 (0.40)
2
N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) 23 2,700 (190) 2.6 (0.47)
5
23 600 (42) 0.8 (0.14)
1 General-purpose epoxy resin, EEW ~188.
2 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr, 125oC.
3 Cured 7 days, ~25oC.
4 With 10 phr Accelerator 399.
5 Cured 28 days, ~25oC. Sample brittle when tested at 7 and 21 days.




53
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide


Adhesion can be greatly enhanced by inclusion of small amounts of phase-separating or microvoid-forming
additives such as JEFFAMINE® T-5000 amine. For more detailed information about this adhesion promoter,
contact our technical service representative or any of the sales offices listed in this brochure.




Figure 11.7
Effect of Temperature on the Tensile Shear Strength of JEFFAMINE®
Polyoxypropyleneamine-Based Adhesives




JEFFAMINE® T-403 Amine


JEFFAMINE® D-230 Amine




JEFFAMINE® D-400 Amine

JEFFAMINE® D-400/D-2000 Amine




54
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

RESISTANCE TO CHEMICALS: IMMERSION TESTING

Immersion testing is carried out on cured epoxy samples 3 x 1 x 1/8 inch in size. Weight gain is calculated for each of the samples after submersion for 28
days in a variety of chemicals and solvents. Results of such tests are shown in Table 11.8.

Generally speaking, the JEFFAMINE® products offer good alkali and water resistance, and fair acid resistance. Solvent resistance is poor in most cases.
Elevated curing temperatures will improve chemical resistance.

Table 11.8 - Immersion Weight Gain of Epoxy Castings

% Weight Gain After 28 Days Immersion in:
Distilled
Curative
Concentration, Conditions 10% Water, 30% 5% Acetic
40oC
phr1 of Cure Methanol Toluene
Curative NaOH H2SO4 Acid
JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine 2
32 1.1 2.4 1.9 4.8 20.1 1.5
3 5 5
32 0.4 2.5 10.4 22.8
® 2 5
JEFFAMINE D-400 amine 55 1.4 2.8 6.9 9.2 26.6
3 5
55 1.7 2.7 11.2 18.3 27.1
® 2
JEFFAMINE T-403 amine 42 0.9 1.8 1.1 1.5 11.8 1.1
3 5
42 1.1 2.0 3.3 40.2 20.0
2
Diethylenetriamine (DETA) 11 0.6 1.4 1.1 0.9 1.6 0.1
3
11 0.8 2.0 2.8 12.0 5.3 8.8
2
Polyamide (amine value 385) 52 1.1 3.4 2.7 3.1 10.6 7.2
3 5
52 1.4 3.3 3.0 10.6 23.9
4 5 5
N-aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) 23 2.2 5.5 59.9 9.1
1 General-purpose epoxy resin, EEW -188.
2 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr, 125oC.
3 Cured 7 days at room temperature.
4 Cured 28 days at room temperature.
5 Sample disintegrated during test.




55
11. Cured Properties Reference Guide

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES

The electrical properties of epoxy resins cured with JEFFAMINE® PEA are good. Values obtained with JEFFAMINE® polyoxypropyleneamine-cured
epoxy systems (Table 11.9) are typical of those expected with epoxy/amine formulations. No deficiencies in electrical properties are noted upon curing
with any of the JEFFAMINE® polyamines. Higher values would undoubtedly result from more specialized formulating. Special resins are available for
electrical potting, for example.

Table 11.9 - Electrical Properties of Epoxy Systems Cured with JEFFAMINE® Products

Formulation,1 pbw A B C D
Epoxy resin2 100 100 100 100
JEFFAMINE┬« D-230 amine 32 ÔÇ? ÔÇ? ÔÇ?
JEFFAMINE┬« D-400 amine ÔÇ? 55 ÔÇ? 50
JEFFAMINE┬« T-403 amine ÔÇ? ÔÇ? 42 ÔÇ?
JEFFAMINE┬« D-2000 amine ÔÇ? ÔÇ? ÔÇ? 25

Electrical properties
Dielectric constant, 100 Hz (ASTM D 150), 23oC 4.7 4.6 4.8 6.0
40oC 60oC 4.7 4.6 4.7 7.0
100oC 4.7 5.2 4.8 7.6
o
1,000 Hz (ASTM D 150), 23 C 5.4 7.4 5.1 7.2
3.6 3.5 3.5 3.9
Dissipation factor, 100 Hz, 23oC 3.4 x 10-3 4.3 x 10-3 5.3 x 10-3 8.2 x 10-3
40oC 3. 1 X 10-3 4.2 x 10-3 5.0 x 10-3 8.3 x 10-3
60oC 3.5 x 10-3 7.4 x 10-3 5.3 x 10-3 8.5 x 10-3
100oC 6.9 x 10-3 23.5 x 10-3 14.6 x 10-3 94.7 x 10-3
1,000 Hz, 23oC 31 .1 X 10-3 31.6 x 10-3 32.5 x 10-3 50.9 x 10-3
Volume resistivity, ohm-cm, DC (ASTM D 257), 23oC 5.0 x 1015 4.3 x 1015 3.1 X 1015 5.9 x 1013
40oC 3.4 x 1015 5.2 x 1014 6.0 x 1014 3.2 x 1013
60oC 2.6 x 1014 2.8 x 1013 2.7 x 1014 1.7 x 1012
80oC 3.0 x 1014 2.4 x 1013 1.8 x 1014 1.6 x 1011
o
Arc resistance, sec, 25 C (ASTM D 495), stainless electrode 88 108 103 91
tungsten electrode 104 118 109 122
Dielectric strength, v/mil, 25oC, 1/8-inch thickness (ASTM D 149) 558 597 647 576
1 Cured 2 hr, 80oC; 3 hr, 125oC.
2 General-purpose epoxy resin, EEW ~188.




56
12. Handling and Storage


12. HANDLING AND STORAGE

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

At temperatures of 75 to 100oF

Tanks Carbon Steel
Lines, valves Carbon Steel
Pumps Carbon Steel
Heat exchanger surfaces Stainless Steel
Hoses Stainless Steel, Polyethylene, Polypropylene, TEFLON® fluoropolymer
Gaskets, Packing TEFLON┬« fluoropolymer or polypropylene ÔÇ? avoid materials such as
neoprene, Buna N and VITON® fluroelastomer
Atmosphere Nitrogen

At temperatures above 100oF

Tanks Stainless Steel or Aluminum
Lines, valves Stainless Steel
Pumps Stainless Steel or Carpenter 20 alloy or equivalent
Atmosphere Nitrogen

Because amines can react with the humidity and carbon dioxide in the air, it is recommended that the head space
of containers used to store any amines be purged with dry nitrogen prior to closure, in order to maintain maximum
shelf-life. Repeated air exposure can lead to formation of ammonium carbamates, which in some applications
may cause process problems, though JEFFAMINE® amines are less likely than most other amines to have such
problems.

A nitrogen blanket is suggested for all storage in case of accidental high temperatures. It should be noted that
pronounced discoloration is likely to occur at temperatures above 140oF, whatever the gaseous pad.

Clean-out of lines and equipment containing the JEFFAMINE┬« PEAÔÇÖs is easy; warm water or steam is all that is
required.

In the event of spillage of this product, the area may be flushed with water. The proper method of disposal of
waste material is by incineration with strict observance of all federal, state, and local regulations.
TEFLON® is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company.
VITON® is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers.




57
13. Toxicity and Safety


13. TOXICITY AND SAFETY

MSDS should be reviewed thoroughly prior to use of each product.

The JEFFAMINE® PEAs should be considered hazardous, having the potential to cause burns to the skin and
eyes and toxic effects by absorption through the skin or by swallowing. Impervious gloves and chemical-type
goggles with face shield must be worn when handling these products. When handling large quantities subject to
splashes and spills, impervious suits and rubber boots must also be worn.

Should accidental contact occur, flush the eyes thoroughly with water for at least 15 minutes and get immediate
medical attention. Do not attempt to neutralize with chemical agents. Continue flushing for an additional 15
minutes if medical attention is not immediately available.

In case of skin contact, immediately wash the exposed area with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Do not
attempt to neutralize with chemical agents. If drenched, immediately remove contaminated clothing under the
safety shower. Discard or decontaminate clothing and shoes before reuse.

In case of ingestion, immediately give two glasses of water (16 oz), but do not induce vomiting and get immediate
medical attention. These materials are corrosive. If vomiting occurs, give fluids again. Have a physician
determine if condition of patient will permit induction of vomiting or evacuation of stomach. Do not give anything
by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person.

JEFFAMINE® D-230 amine is considered slightly toxic if swallowed or absorbed through the skin. JEFFAMINE®
D-400 amine is considered moderately toxic if swallowed and slightly toxic if absorbed through the skin.
JEFFAMINE® D-2000 amine is considered toxic if swallowed, and slightly toxic if absorbed through the skin.
JEFFAMINE® T-403 amine is considered toxic if absorbed through the skin or swallowed. All of these
JEFFAMINE® products are corrosive to the skin, and are severely to extremely irritating to the eyes. In acute
toxicity testing, the results shown below were obtained.

JEFFAMINE® Product
Test D-230 D-400 D-2000 T-403
Single oral dose LD50 value in rats, g/kg 2.88 1.10 0.48 0.22
Single dermal LD50 value in rabbits, g/kg 2.98 1.56 2.09 0.61
Draize score for skin irritation in rabbits >6.5-8.0/8.0 3.08/8.0 >6.5-8.0/8.0 8.0/8.0
DOT 4-hour test, corrosiveness to the Corrosive Corrosive Corrosive Corrosive
skin
Draize score for eye irritation in rabbits >80-110/110 60.70/110 >80/110 80-110/110
Delayed contact hypersensitivity Negative Negative Not Negative
Determined

All four JEFFAMINE® products have been found to be non-mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella/microsome plate
test. Additional tests on D-230 and D-400 showed these products to be inactive in the Balb/3T3 in vitro Cell
Transformation Assay and the Mouse Lymphoma Assay. Tests on D-2000 and T-403 showed these products to
be inactive with respect to genetic toxicity in the Mouse Micronucleus Test and Unscheduled DNA Synthesis
(UDS) Assays.




58
14. Shipping Information


14. SHIPPING INFORMATION

AVAILABILITY

The JEFFAMINE® products described in this brochure are available in tank cars, tank wagons, and 55-gallon
drums through customer service. Sizes of 5-gallon cans are available through the sample department. Some
products may need additional lead time. Samples can be obtained by contacting the Huntsman Corporation
offices listed on the inside of the back cover. Orders can be placed by contacting the customer service advisers
listed on the inside of the back cover.

TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION

See MSDS for individual JEFFAMINE® products for transportation information.




59
15. Huntsman Corporation Publications Relating to Epoxies


15. HUNTSMAN CORPORATION PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO EPOXIES

PRODUCT DATA SHEETS AND APPLICATION BULLETINS

Accelerator 399
Adhesive Properties of JEFFAMINE Polyetheramine Epoxy Curing Agents
Application Guide for JEFFAMINE Products
Curing Epoxy Resins with Blends of JEFFAMINE Products and Imidazoles
Epoxy Curing Agents and Accelerators
Epoxy Polymer Concrete Using JEFFAMINE EDR-148 (XTJ-504)
Epoxy Resin Curing-Comparison of a Polyetheramine, JEFFAMINE® D-230, with Three Commonly Used
Polyamides
Flexible Epoxy Adhesive Formulations Prepared from High Molecular Weight Polyoxyalkyleneamines
JEFFAMINE® D-230 Polyoxypropylenediamine
JEFFAMINE® D-400 Polyoxypropylenediamine
JEFFAMINE® D-2000 Polyoxypropylenediamine
JEFFAMINE® EDR Series of Polyetheramines
JEFFAMINE® EDR-148 (XTJ-504) JEFFAMINE® M Series JEFFAMINE® M-600 JEFFAMINE® M-1000
JEFFAMINE® M-2005 and M-2070 JEFFAMINE® Polyetheramines in Syntactic Foams JEFFAMINE®
Poly(oxyethylene)diamines-JEFFAMINE® ED Compounds
JEFFAMINE® T-403 Polyoxypropylenetriamine
JEFFAMINE® T-3000
JEFFAMINE® T-5000
Monononyiphenol (MNP) Additive for Epoxy Applications Polyamides from JEFFAMINE Polyetheramines:
Preparation and Use in Hot Melt Adhesives
Reactive Diluents for Polyamide Curing Agents
TEXACUREÔä? EA-20 Epoxy Curing Agent
TEXACUREÔä? EA-24 Epoxy Curing Agent
TEXACUREÔä? EA-43 Epoxy Curing Agent
TEXACUREÔä? SPA-51 Epoxy Curing Agent
The JEFFAMINE® Polyoxyalkyleneamines
Use of JEFFAMINE® Polyoxyalkyleneamines in Decoupage-Type Decorative Coatings
Use of JEFFAMINE® T-5000 as a Component of Epoxy Adhesive Systems Water-Reducible Coatings via Epoxy
Resin Modification with JEFFAMINE® M-1000
BIBLIOGRAPHIES
Coatings Applications
Elastomeric Applications
Encapsulation and Molding Applications
Epoxy Accelerator Applications
Laminate and Composite Applications
Latent Curing Applications
Textile and Fiber Applications




60
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

16. BIBLIOGRAPHY-JEFFAMINE® PEA APPLICATIONS

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
Adhesives
1 39,322 AU Shenkel (to Teroson GmbH), August 4, Product of reaction between 2000 mol. wt.
1989. etherdiamine and excess epoxy is cured with
dicyandiamide for a hot melt adhesive.
2 310,706 EP H. G. Waddill, J. J. Lin, and G. P. Amidoamine curing agents prepared by reaction
Speranza (to Texaco Development of JEFFAMINE® polyetheramines with aromatic
Corp.), February 1, 1989. di- or tricarboxylic acids provide rapid cure of
epoxy resins at ambient temperatures.
3 432,923 EP Henry S. Y. Hsich (to Lord Corp.), Epoxy resin-rubber blends with reduced phase
June 19, 1991. separation are formed using a reactive liquid
rubber and JEFFAMINE® D-230 with an epoxy
resin.
4 432,943 EP G. P. Speranza and W. Y. Su (to Amine-terminated polyoxyalkylenepolyamides
Texaco Chemical Company), June 19, compatible with polyols used in adhesives are
1991. prepared from JEFFAMINE® D-2000, D-400, and
adipic acid.
5 1,004,859 CAN Minnesota Mining Co., February 8, A tough, elastomeric epoxy binder containing a
1977. water-insoluble polyetherpolyamine is used to
adhere hard particles to resilient surfaces.
6 1,484,797 GB Anthony V. Cunliffe, Norman C. Paul, A room-temperature-curable adhesive with high
Peter J. Pearce, and David Hugh bond strength was produced by reaction of a
Richards (to U. K. Secretary of State diepoxide with a carboxy-terminated nitrile rubber
for Defense, London), September 8, which was hardened by a primary amine-
1977. terminated polyether.
7 2,748,705 GR Heinz Schulze and H. G. Waddill (to A poly(oxypropylene)diamine was condensed
Texaco Development Corp.), May 24, with urea or with maleic anhydride to form
1978. products useful in improving metal-to-metal
adhesion of hardened epoxy resins.
8 2,828,152 GR H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development A ureide group-terminated reaction product of
Corp.), January 11, 1979, JEFFAMINE® D-2000 and urea was added to
amine-hardener epoxy resins to improve
adhesion. Added to anhydride-cured epoxy
systems, thermal shock properties were
improved.
9 2,940,912 GR H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Inc.), April The adhesion of a hardened epoxy resin was
30, 1980. improved through use of mixtures of a
polyoxyalkylenepolyamine of 900-4000 mol. wt.
with a low mol. wt. polyamine such as
JEFFAMINE® D-230 or bis(3-
aminopropyl)ethylenediamine.
10 3,432,370 US Charles W. Bash and George A. Lane Binders for illuminating flares are prepared from
(to Dow Chemical Co.), March 11, salts of amino-terminated polypropylene glycol
1969. and an epoxy resin.
11 3,511,725 US Don L. Stevens and Harold E. Filter (to Binders for solid rocket propellants were prepared
Dow Chemical Co.), May 12, 1970. by cross-linking amine-terminated polyglycols
with various resins.




61
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
12 4,070,225 US Vernon H. Batdorf (to H. B. Fuller Co.), A latent or slow-curing adhesive system was
November 17, 1976. formulated from an epoxy resin and a primary
amine-terminated polyamide. The polyamide was
prepared from a polymeric tall oil fatty acid, a
polyoxypropyleneamine, 1,4-
bis(aminopropyl)piperazine, and ethylenediamine.
13 4,082,708 US Mehta; Ramesh ( for HB Fuller Co), Adhesive systems comprising a bisamino
April 4, 1978 piperazine-containing polyamide
14 4,119,615 US Schulze; Heinz (for Texaco Thermoplastic adhesive polyoxamide from
Development Corp), October 10, 1978 polyoxypropylene polyamine
15 4,141,885 US Texaco Development Corp., February High molecular weight polyoxyalkyleneamine
27, 1979. bisureides are used as additives in anhydride-
cured or amine-cured epoxy compositions to
improve adhesion properties and thermal impact
strength.
16 4,146,700 US H. G. Waddill and Heinz Schulze (to The diamide prepared from a
Texaco Development Corp.), March polyoxyalkylenepolyamine urea condensate
27, 1979. increases adhesive strength of an amine-cured
epoxy composition.
17 4,147,857 US H. G. Waddill and Heinz Schulze (to Polyoxyalkylenepolyamine succinimide
Texaco Development Corp.), April 3, derivatives, when added to amine-cured epoxy
1979. systems, resulted in enhanced adhesion
properties.
18 4,178,426 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development Polyetheramines with urea termination are used
Corp.), December 11, 1979. to enhance adhesive properties of epoxy resins
cured with aminopropyl derivatives of
ethyleneamines.
19 4,187,367 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development Epoxy resins cured with a
Corp.), February 5, 1980. polyoxyalkylenepolyamine aminoalkylene
derivative and containing a polyether diureide had
high adhesion and peel strength properties.
20 4,423,170 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development Water-dilutable epoxy adhesive systems are
Corp.), December 27, 1983. produced with epoxy resins modified with
polyoxyalkylene poly- or monoamines.
21 4,485,229 US H. G. Waddill and R. J. G. Dominguez Epoxy adhesive systems containing
(to Texaco Inc.), November 27, 1984. JEFFAMINE® T-5000 as an adhesion promoter
give high peel strength and good shear strength.
22 4,605,605 US Cannone (to AT&T Bell Labs), August An epoxy sealant cured with a
12, 1986. polyoxypropylenetriamine was used to prevent
electrolyte leakage in standby batteries.
23 4,728,737 US A. B. Goel (to Ashland Oil, Inc.), March High performance epoxy structural adhesives
1, 1988. with chemical thixotropy contain JEFFAMINE®
D-400.
24 4,740,536 US Chao; Yen-Yau H., (for Rohm & Haas Water-based binder, coating and adhesive
Co.), April 26, 1988 compositions from alkaline-curable latex
polymers, epoxies and amines
25 4,740,539 US A. B. Goel (to Ashland Oil, Inc.), April Flexible, two-component structural adhesives are
26, 1988. prepared from epoxy resin, reactive liquid rubber,
isocyanates, JEFFAMINE® T-3000 or T-5000,
bisphenol A, and a tertiary amine catalyst.
26 4,760,125 US N. Wiemers (to Henkel), July 26, 1988. Use of polyoxypropyleneamines in hot melt
adhesives gives improved flexibility.


62
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
27 4,766,186 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and H. G. Waddill Epoxy adhesive systems cured with
(to Texaco Chemical Company), JEFFAMINE® EDR-series amines provide high
August 23, 1988. shear strength and relatively high peel strength.
28 4,798,879 US Hannah; Steven L.; Williams; Maureen Catalyzed fast cure polyurethane sealant
R.; Greenlee; Thomas W, (for The BF composition
Goodrich Co), January 17, 1989
29 4,814,415 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and D. C. Adhesives cured with blends of JEFFAMINE®
Alexander (to Texaco Chemical polyoxyalkyleneamines and oxamidoamine
Company), March 21, 1989. derivatives of the JEFFAMINE® products offer
high peel strength in addition to good shear
strength.
30 4,822,683 US Schappert; Raymond F.; Piccirilli; Method for preparing an adhesive bond with a
Robert M. (for PPG Industries), April curable composition having reduced shrinkage
18, 1989 during cure
31 4,837,295 US K. F. Drain and K. Kadziela (to Loctite Epoxy/bismaleimide mixtures cured with
Corp.), June 6, 1989. JEFFAMINE® D-230 offer improved initial
adhesion and thermal shock resistance for use
with engineering plastics for electrical/electronic
components.
32 4,847,319 US Bandlish; Baldev K. (for The BF Sealant compositions or coating mixtures
Goodrich Corp Company), July 11, containing functional silane or siloxane adhesion
1989 promotors nonreactive with blocked isocyanates
33 4,853,456 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and T. L. Renken Adhesives cured with blends of JEFFAMINE®
(to Texaco Chemical Company), polyoxyalkyleneamines and iso- or
August 1, 1989. terephthalamidoamine derivatives offer excellent
shear strength and peel strength.
34 4,952,621 US Bandlish; Baldev K. (for The BF Urethane sealants or coating admixtures having
Goodrich Corp Company), August 28, improved shelf stability
1990
35 4,952,659 US Hannah; Steven L.; Williams; Maureen Catalyzed fast cure polyurethane sealant
R. (for The BF Goodrich Corp Co), composition
August 28, 1990
36 5,077,360 US DePompei; Michael F.; Hernandez; Acrylic sealant composition and methods relating
Pamela K. (for Tremco, Inc.) thereto
December 31, 1991
37 5,120,817 US G. P. Speranza, H. G. Waddill, and J. Rapid curing epoxy hardeners are produced by
J. Lin (to Texaco Chemical Company), the condensation reaction of phenol,
June 9,1992. formaldehyde, and polyoxyethylenediamines.
38 5,198,524 US Bush; Richard W.; Carney; Eugene E Moisture-curing acrylate/epoxy hybrid adhesives
(for WR Grace & Co), March 30, 1993
39 5,241,016 US Waddill; Harold G.; Grigsby, Jr.; Epoxy adhesives containing aminated, long chain
Robert A.; Cuscurida; Michael; monoepoxide capped polyols
Zimmerman; Robert L. (for Texaco
Chemical Co), August 31, 1993
40 5,712,039 US Marhevka; Virginia C.; Griggs; Allen L.; Epoxy adhesives with dithiooxamide adhesion
Tarbutton; Kent S. (for 3M) January promoters
27, 1998
41 5,891,367 US Basheer; Rafil Abdulkadir; Zwolinski; Conductive epoxy adhesive
Michael Stephen (for General Motors
Corp) April 6, 1999



63
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
42 5,929,141 US Lau; Steven E.; Huff; Deborah S.; Adhesive of epoxy resin, amine-terminated ban
Hermansen; Ralph D.; Johnston; E. and conductive filler
Dean (for Raytheon Co) July 27, 1999
43 5,955,199 US Johnson; Randy Allen; Tufts; Timothy Imine-containing curative for two component
Allen (for Ashland Inc) September 21, polyurethane structural adhesives
1999
44 6,015,865 US Blank; Norman E.; Schenkel; Hubert K. Hot melt adhesive from epoxy resin/amine-
(for Henkel-Teroson GmbH) January terminated polyalkylene glycol adduct
18, 2000
45 6,528,595 US Ikawa; Masahiro; Okuhira; Hiroyuki; Adhesive of thiirane and oxirane-containing
Chino; Keisuke (for Yokohama Rubber compound and oxirane-containing compound
Co Ltd) March 23, 2003
46 6,645,341 US Gordon; Terry (for National Starch & Two part epoxide adhesive with improved
Chemical Investment Holding Corp) strength
November 11, 2003
47 6,727,320 US Attarwala; Shabbir; Qinyan; Zhu; Polymerizable compositions in non-flowable
Burdzy; Matthew P. (for Henkel Loctite forms
Corp) April 27, 2004
48 57,034,648 JP Toshiba Battery Co., Ltd., February Leakage-resistant alkaline cells use epoxy resin,
25,1982. polyoxypropylene-amine, and polyamide
composition between gasket and sealing plate.
49 57,185,370 JP Canon, November 15, 1982. Epoxy adhesives with good efficiency and
durability are cured with ethyleneamines and
aminopropyl ethylene glycols and used for optical
materials.
50 59,147,014 JP Nitto Electric Industries, August 23, Epoxy adhesive compositions containing
1984. polyetherdiamines, liquid acrylonitrile-butadiene
copolymers, and inorganic fibers offer improved
strength and adhesion properties at lower
temperatures.
51 60,069,127 JP Nitto Electric Industries, April 19,1985. A composition comprised of epoxy resin,
polyetherpolyamine, and a urea derivative offers
improved heat resistance and adhesion
properties.
52 60,069,128 JP Nitto Electric Industries, April 19,1985. An epoxy composition cured with a mixture of
dicyandiamide, an amine-terminated liquid
rubber, a polyetherpolyamine, and a urea
derivative mixes easily, cures rapidly, and offers
improved heat resistance and adhesion
properties.
53 61,207,425 JP Nitto Electric Industries, September An adhesive prepared from rubber-modified
13, 1986. epoxy resins, polyether-polyamines, and
guanidine or cyanoguanidine products cures
rapidly and offers excellent heat resistance and
adhesion properties.
54 62,243,616 JP Nitto Electric Industries, October An epoxy composition useful for adhering
24,1987. materials with different coefficients of thermal
expansion contains polyetherpolyamines and an
inorganic fibrous material.




64
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
55 2,552,518 GR H. P. Klein (to Texaco Development Polyamide adhesives were prepared from a
76,125,429 JP Corp.), August 12, 1976, November 1, mixture of a poly-oxypropylenepolyamine, a C4-
1976. 20 aliphatic or aromatic clicarboxylic acid, and,
optionally, epoxy resins or other additives.
56 2,741,268 GR Ramesh Mehta (to H. B. Fuller Co.), Quick-setting epoxy adhesive formulations
4,082,708 US March 23, 1978, and April 4, 1978. containing polyamide hardener prepared from
clicarboxylic acid and dialkylpiperazine or
polyoxypropylenediamine offer high peel strength.
57 2,748,656, GR Heinz Schulze and H. G. Waddill (to Polyether diamines and polyether diureides were
Texaco Development Corp.), May 24, prepared by the reaction of
1978. poly(oxypropylene)diamine with formic acid, urea,
phenyl isocyanate, or benzyl alcohol and added
to epoxy resins containing amine hardeners to
improve adhesion of the hardened resins.
58 3,847,726 US Wilhelm Becker, et al. (to Reichhold- Vibration-damping sheet metal laminates were
2,217,331 GR Albert Chemie Aktiengesellschaft), prepared with an adhesive composed of an epoxy
November 12, 1974; November resin cured with the condensation product of a
2,1972. polyoxypropyleneamine, phenol, and an
aldehyde.
59 4,122,069, US Lee G. Meyer (to Texaco Development The adhesion of amine-cured epoxy resins was
Corp.), October 24, 1978. improved by addition of dihydroxyalkyl
carbamate-terminated polyether additives. These
additives were prepared by reaction of a
polyoxypropylenepolyamine (JEFFAMINE®
D-2000) with ethylene carbonate.
60 4,179,552 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development Rapid-hardening epoxy resin systems are cured
2,910,110 GR Corp.), December 18, 1979. with epoxy adducts of aminopropyl derivatives of
JEFFAMINE® amines. Systems also contain an
accelerator and an adhesion promoter.
61 4,420,606 USGRJP K G. Waddill (to Texaco Inc.), A flexible adhesive is prepared from a
3,368,656 December 13, 1983. polyepoxide modified with a
88,011,362 polyoxyalkylenemonoamine and a modified
imidazole catalyst.
62 4,500,604 US J. Herold, W. Gruber, and G. Henke An adhesive from the polyetheramine or
87,075 EP (to Henkel), August 25, 1983. polyamide cure of an epoxy resin prepared by a
3,368,654 GR glycidol/isocyanate reaction is used in the
production of laminated polyolefin films.
63 57,167,370 JP Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Isocyanate oxime accelerators are used in epoxy
88,058,197 JP October 15, 1982. and November 15, adhesives cured with 33 polyoxypropyleneamines
1988. and acid hydrazides.
64 EP0329266 EP Alexander, DC; Renken, TL; Sellstrom, Amidoamine and oxamidoamine co-curatives in
KB (for Texaco Development Corp) epoxy thermoset adhesive.
August 23, 1989
65 Stephen G. Seger, Jr. and Louis H. Adhesives for bonding ferrite transformer core
Sharpe, Polym. Sci. Technol. 1975, 9B components comprised an epoxy resin and
(Adhes. Sci. Technol.), 577-95. JEFFAMINE® T-403.
66 H. G. Waddill, "Epoxy Adhesive Property enhancement through the creation of a
Formulations with Enhanced "microvoid" system throughout a cured epoxy
Properties," presented at the 13th matrix is discussed.
National S.A. M.P. E. Technical
Conference, Boston, Mass., November
13-15, 1979.



65
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
67 H. N. Vazirani, Adhes. Age 1980,23 Flexible epoxy resins were prepared having a
(10) 31-5. wide variety of mechanical properties. One- and
two-part systems are prepared using epoxy resin
adducts of polyoxyalkylenepolyamines.
68 Kathy B. Sellstrom, "Polyethylene A new JEFFAMINE® epoxy curing agent is
Glycol Diamines: New Curing Agents introduced. Adhesive properties obtained with the
for Epoxy Adhesives," presented at the curing agent are discussed.
Adhesive and Sealant Council
conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, October
25-28, 1987.
69 A. T. Hu, R. S. Tsai, and R. D. Lee, J. Use of JEFFAMINE® D-2000 in hot melt
Appl. Polymer Sci. 1989,37, 1863-76. adhesives is described; improvement in impact
strength is shown.
70 Kathy B. Sellstrom and H. G. Waddill, Effects of molecular weight, terminal group,
"Modifiers for Enhanced Adhesion backbone structure, and functionality of modifiers
Property Development," presented at on microvoid-forming ability in amine-cured epoxy
SPI/Epoxy Resin Formulators Division adhesives are discussed.
spring conference, Costa Mesa, Calif.,
March 15-17, 1989.
71 D. C. Alexander, Kathy B. Sellstrom, A variety of polyamidoamines prepared from
and T. L. Renken, "Polyamidoamines JEFFAMINE® polyoxyalkyleneamines are used in
from JEFFAMINE Amines: Preparation epoxy adhesives to give enhanced properties.
and Use in Epoxy Adhesives,"
presented at the Adhesive and Sealant
Council Conference, Los Angeles,
Calif., March 19-3, 1989.

72 D. C. Alexander, Kathy B. Sellstrom, Polyamidoamines and urea condensates of some
and T. L. Renken, "Derivatives of of the JEFFAMINE® polyetheramines are
JEFFAMINE Amines: Preparation and prepared and used in epoxy adhesives to give
Use in Adhesives," presented at the enhanced properties.
SPI/Epoxy Resin Formulators
Conference, Charleston, S. Car.,
September 23-25, 1992.

Coatings
73 245,559 EP L. A. Nativi and P. L. Kropp (to Coating compositions for electronic circuit boards
Loctite), November 19, 1987. are comprised of epoxy resin, 200-6500 mol. wt.
polyoxypropyleneamine, and UV-reactive ester.
Coatings are immobilized with UV light, then
allowed to cure completely under ambient
conditions.
74 293,088 EP R. P. Redman (to ICI), November 30, A nonyellowing electrodeposition coating system
1988. contains an amine-epoxy adduct optionally
prepared with polyoxyalkyleneamines.
75 324,950 EP G. Off, U. Reiter, W. Jouck, D. Electrically conductive substrates (motor vehicle
Santure, and D. Ruhl (to BASF), July bodies) are coated by electrodip into bath
26, 1989. containing cationic amine-modified epoxy resin
and a polyoxyalkyleneamine.
76 405,464 EP Yasuhiro Kimura, et al. (to Ajinomoto Acrylamide derivatives of JEFFAMINE® M-600
Co., Inc.; Nippon Paint Co., Ltd.), June are used in radio-curable coating compositions.
28, 1989.




66
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
77 451,814 EP Klaus, Cibura, John A. Gilbert, Yali F. A phenol/epoxy adduct is reacted with
Hallock, and John D. McGee (to BASF formaldehyde and JEFFAMINE® D-2000 to
Corp.), October 16, 1991. produce a plasticizing resin useful in cathodic
electrodeposition coatings.
78 972,096 CA Jefferson Chemical Inc., July 29, 1975. Epoxy compositions containing carbon disulfide
and a polyoxyalkylenepolyamine are used as
coatings on a variety of materials.
79 1,027,182 RU G. R Malkina, Z. N. Safina, and R. A. A composition for coating floors, with increased
Dmitrieva (to All-Union Scientific light resistance, derives from an acrylate rubber
Research Institute of Pump latex containing glycidyl methacrylate units and a
Engineering Technology), July 7,1983. polyoxypropylenediamine hardener, along with a
filler.
80 1,568,989 FR Farbwerke Hoechst A.-G., May 30, A hardened epoxide resin with increased
1967. resilience, useful for preparing coatings, lacquers,
and varnishes, was prepared from linear, amine-
terminated poly(propylene oxide) and glycidyl
ethers.
81 2,462,453 GR Dianippon, March 3, 1977. Polyamides prepared from dimer acid and
polyetherdiamines are used in aqueous epoxy
coatings to provide good corrosion and chemical
resistance.
82 2,519,390 GR Henry Ashiian, Henry A. Gawel, and A polyamide was prepared from linoleic acid
Archie K. Blakely (to Mobil Oil Corp.), dimer, a polyoxypropylenetriamine
November 13, 1975. (JEFFAMINE® T-403), and diethylenetriamine.
Heated with epoxy resins, the polyamides gave
water-based paints.
83 2,849,123 GR H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development Water-compatible polyamide hardeners of epoxy
Corp.), June 28, 1979. resins were prepared from aminopropyl
derivatives of polyoxyalkylenepolyamines.
Aqueous resin coating systems were prepared
using the polyamide curatives.
84 3,203,974 JP T. Matsunaga, M. Koseki, and H. Urethane coatings exhibiting excellent chip and
Akiyama (to Sanyo Chemical yellowing resistance contain
Industries, Ltd.), September 5, 1991. polyoxyalkylenepolyamines or derivatives of the
amines.
85 3,316,185 US Norman H. Reinking (to Union Carbide Liquid glycol diamines were used to cure epoxy
Corp.), April 25, 1967. resins and form tough, impact-resistant coatings.
86 3,645,969 US James R. Harvey (to Union Carbide Flexible, tough, clear coatings were prepared
Corp.), February 29, 1972. from bisphenol A diglycidyl ether resin and a
polyglycol polyamine.
87 3,730,908 US James R. Harvey (to Union Carbide A mixture of a polyglycol polyamine and an
Corp.), May 1, 1973. alkylene polyamine cured an epoxy resin to form
coatings that were without haze and free of an
oily surface blush.
88 3,943,104 US H.G. Wadill (to Jefferson Chemical Method of accelerating epoxy curing
Co), March 9, 1976
89 3,947,339 US Jerabek; Robert D.; Marchetti; Joseph Method of electrodepositing primary amine group-
R.; Zwack; Robert R. (for PPG, Ind.) containing cationic resins
March 9, 1976
90 3,963,680 US O'Keefe; Donald R.; Gasper; A. One-part, room-temperature latent, curable
Joseph (for Minnesota Mining), June isocyanate compositions
15, 1976



67
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
91 3,998,771 US Feneis, Jr.; Thomas John; Bryant; Water-based epoxy resin zinc-rich coating
Miles Talmadge (for Mobil Oil), compositions
December 21,1976
92 4,011,281 US Waddill; Harold George; Schulze; Polyether thiourea epoxy curing agents
Heinz (for Texaco Development
Corporation), March 8, 1977
93 4,017,438 US Jerabek; Robert D.; Marchetti; Joseph Ketimine-blocked primary amine group-containing
R.; Zwack; Robert R. (for PPG cationic electrodepositable resins
Industries, Inc.) April 12, 1977
94 4,102,866 US Speranza; George P.; Waddill; Harold Method of making glycidyl ethers of novolak
G. (for Texaco Development Corp), resins
July 25, 1978
95 4,110,310 US Schulze; Heinz; Waddill; Harold G. (for Polyether diamide epoxy additives
Texaco Development Corp.), August
29, 1978
96 4,115,226 US Zwack; Robert R.; Jerabek; Robert D.; Cataphoretic electrodeposition baths containing
(for PPG Ind), September 19, 1978 water-soluble lead salts
97 4,136,092 US Jackle; William A.; Mazzeo; Michael P; Polyurethane curing agents
Gillis, Marina N. (for Thiokol Corp),
January 23, 1979
98 4,139,524 US Waddill; Harold G. (for Texaco Bis ureide of a polyoxyalkylene polyamine as an
Development Corp), February 13, epoxy additive
1979
99 4,164,520 US H. G. Waddill and H. P. Klein (to An epoxy resin cured with the reaction product
Texaco Development Corp.), August from phenol, formaldehyde, and aminopropyl
14, 1979. derivative of JEFFAMINE® amines offers
relatively fast cure for coatings, adhesives, etc.
100 4,167,498 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development Epoxy curing agents useful in water-based
Corp.), September 11, 1979. coatings are prepared by reacting aminopropyl
derivatives of JEFFAMINE® amines with acids in
water.
101 4,179,418 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development A water-based epoxy coating is cured with a
Corp.), December 18, 1979. polyamide prepared from a carboxylic acid or
derivative and an aminopropyl derivative of a
polyoxypropylenepolyamine.
102 4,189,564 US Waddill; Harold G. (for Texaco Non-crystallizing epoxy resin accelerator
Development Corp), February 19,
1980
103 4,260,720 US Bosso; Joseph F.; Nugent; Richard M.; Novel mercapto chain extended products and
Plasynski; Joseph E. (for PPG Ind), their use in cationic electrodeposition
April 7, 1981
104 4,269,879 US Murray L. Davis (to the Dampney Co.), Low-viscosity, solvent-free coatings were
May 26, 1981. prepared. The curing system consisted of coal
tar, cycloaliphatic amines, polyoxyalkylene-
amines, and an accelerator.
105 4,292,155 US Bosso; Joseph F.; Nugent; Richard M.; Cationic electrodeposition employing novel
Plasynski; Joseph E. (for PPG Ind), mercapto chain extended products
September 29, 1981
106 4,304,889 US H. G. Waddill and Heinz Schulze (to Chemically resistant epoxy coatings are prepared
Texaco Inc.), December 8, 1981. with an aromatic amine and the condensation
product of maleic anhydride with JEFFAMINE®
amines.


68
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
107 4,316,003 US Mark F. Dante and Roy A. Allen (to An adduct suitable for curing waterborne epoxy
Shell Oil Co.), February 16, 1982. systems comprises the reaction product of an
epoxy resin with a monoamine which is reacted
with a polyfunctional amine. Suitable
polyfunctional amines are
polyoxypropyleneamines (JEFFAMINE®
products).
108 4,393,237 US Yeakey; Ernest L.; Watts, Jr.; Lewis W. Polyoxyalkylenepolyacrylamides
(for Texaco, Inc.) , July 12, 1983
109 4,419,467 US Wismer; Marco; Bosso; Joseph F. (for Process for the preparation of cationic resins,
PPG Industries), December 6, 1983 aqueous, dispersions, thereof, and
electrodeposition using the aqueous dispersions
110 4,420,574 US Moriarity; Thomas C; Geiger; William Ungelled polyepoxide-polyoxyalkylenepolyamine
J.( for PPG Industries), December 13, resins, aqueous dispersions thereof, and their
1983 use in cationic electrodeposition
111 4,421,906 US H. G. Waddill and Kathy B. Sellstrom Epoxy resins modified with JEFFAMINE® M- or
(to Texaco Inc.), December 20, 1983. ED-series amines are used in water-based
coating formulations.
112 4,423,166 US Moriarity; Thomas C; Geiger; William Ungelled polyepoxide-polyoxyalkylenepolyamine
J.( for PPG Industries), December 27, resins, aqueous dispersions thereof, and their
1983 use in cationic electrodeposition
113 4,436,890 US Kaufman; Marvin L. (for Mobil Oil), Aromatic urea-based curing agent system for
March 18, 1984 epoxy resin coating compositions
114 4,468,307 US Wismer; Marco; Bosso; Joseph F. (for Method of cationic electrodeposition
PPG Industries), August 28, 1994
115 4,480,082 US McLean; Paul D.; Garton; Andrew; Epoxy resin fortifiers based on aromatic amides
Scott; Robert F.; Gransden; Susan E.,
(for Canadian Patents & Development
Ltd), October 30, 1984
116 4,528,345 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development Epoxy coatings are prepared by pre-reacting a
Corp.), July 9, 1985. polyoxyalkylenepolyamine or N-
aminoethylpiperazine with a cycloaliphatic
diepoxy resin and then curing with an accelerator.
117 4,532,299 US Seneker; James A. (for Ameron, Inc), Flexibilized chemically resistant epoxy resin
July 30, 1985
118 4,536,600 US Yeakey; Ernest L.; Watts, Jr.; Lewis W. Polyoxyalkylenepolyacrylamides and the
(for Texaco, Inc.) , August 20, 1985 preparation thereof
119 4,576,980 US Dai; Shenghong A.; Sherwood; Philip Azetidinedione compounds as crosslinkers for
W. (for The Dow Chemical Co.), March electrodeposited coatings
18, 1986
120 4,612,098 US Dai; Shenghong A.; Sherwood; Philip
W. (for The Dow Chemical Co.), March
18, 1987
121 4,629,769 US Waddill; Harold G.; Speranza; George 4,4,6-trimethylhexahydropyrimidine as an epoxy
P. (for Texaco, Inc.), December 16, curing agent
1986
122 4,639,286 US Rasmussen; Jerald K.; Heilmann; Curable compositions containing azlactone-
Steven M.; Palensky; Frederick J., (for functional compounds
3M), January 27, 1987




69
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
123 4,647,646 US Hardy; Alan; Agger; Reginald T.; Heat curable compositions
Crabtree; Andrew, (for USM Corp),
March 13, 1987
124 4,659,787 US Cummings; Lowell O. (for Chemcrete Method for making epoxy curing agents
International Partnership), April 21,
1987
125 4,665,191 US Waddill; Harold G.; Speranza; George Mannich condensates
P. (for Texaco, Inc.), May 12, 1987
126 4,666,970 US Zwack; Robert R.; Jerabek; Robert D. Cataphoretic electrodeposition baths containing
(for PPG Industries, Inc), May 19, water-soluble lead salts
1987
127 4,683,302 US Dai; Shenghong A.; Sherwood; Philip Azetidinedione compounds as crosslinkers for
W. (for The Dow Chemical Co), July electrodeposited coat
28, 1987
128 4,690,980 US Singer; Debra L.; Birkmeyer; William Acrylic modified polymers
J.; Dowbenko; Rostyslaw; Kania;
Charles M. (for PPG Industries, Inc.) ,
September 1, 1987
129 4,695,618 US Mowrer; Norman R. (for Ameron, Inc.), Solventless polyurethane spray compositions and
September 22, 1987 method for applying them
130 4,716,209 US Schmid, Ansel, and Murray (to Electron beam-curable coatings are prepared
DeSoto), December 29, 1987. from the reaction product of diols and
JEFFAMINE® D-230 with excess isocyanate.
131 4,761,465 US Speranza; George P.; Lin; Jiang-Jen; Difunctional isocyanate-terminated
Cuscurida; Michael (for Texaco Inc.), polyoxyalkylene diamine prepolymers and
August 2, 1988 polymer coatings applications
132 4,767,836 US Cuscurida; Michael (for Texaco), Storage stable polyurethane coating
August 30, 1988
133 4,786,682 US Perez; Leon A.; Crum, III; H. Hayne Coating compositions prepared from Michael
(for PPG Industries), November 22, adducts
1988
134 4,800,222 US Waddill; Harold G. (for Texaco, Inc.) , Accelerator for curing epoxy resins comprising
January 24, 1989 piperazine, triethanolamine and
tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol
135 4,812,493 US Cummings; Lowell O., (for Adhesive Dual cure rate water-based coating compositions
Coatings), March 14, 1989
136 4,816,533 US Hisgen; Bernd; Kock; Hans-Jakob (for Wholly aromatic mesomorphic polyester amides
BASF), March 29, 1989 and preparation thereof
137 4,824,925 US Kamarchik, Jr.; Peter; McCollum; Novel blocked isocyanates and curable
Gregory J.; Mauer; George W. (for compositions containing the same
PPG Industries), April 25, 1989
138 4,870,150 US Bandlish; Baldev K.; Barron; Larry R. Polyurethanes made from blends of
(for Tremco Inc.), September 26, 1989 polypropyleneoxide polyol and polybutyleneoxide
polyol intermediates
139 4,880,872 US Thomas; Arthur K, (for ICI Americas, Heat resistant high modulus reaction injection
Inc.), November r14, 1989 molding (RIM) polymers, blends used in the
production thereof and a process for producing
the same
140 4,886,842 US Drain; Kieran F; Kadziela; Kris (for Epoxy-amine compositions employing
Loctite Corp), December 12, 1989 unsaturated imides



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Publication/Date
141 4,886,867 US Lin; Jiang-Jen; Speranza; George P. Novel compositions from polyoxyalkylene amines
(for Texaco Inc.), December 12, 1989 and epoxides
142 4,891,111 US McCollum; Gregory J.; Zwack; Robert Cationic electrocoating compositions
R.; Scriven; Roger L. (for PPG
Industries Inc), January 2, 1990
143 4,904,751 US Speranza; George P.; Lin; Jiang-Jen; N,N'-dialkyl substituted polyoxyalklene amines as
Cuscurida; Michael (for Texaco curing agents for blocked isocyanates
Chemical Co), February 27, 1990
144 4,906,726 US Cummings; Lowell, (Adhesive Water-based coating compositions containing
Coatings Co), March 6, 1990 hydroxides and oxides of calcium, strontium and
barium
145 4,906,774 US Speranza; George P.; Lin; Jiang-Jen; Process for preparing diamines
Cuscurida; Michael, (Texaco, Inc),
March 6, 1990
146 4,910,269 US Waddill; Harold G., (Texaco Chemical Polyether polyamine-piperazine cured
Co), March 20, 1990 cycloaliphatic epoxy resin compositions
147 4,916,199 US Bandlish; Baldev K. Barron; Larry R. Polyurethanes made from blends of
(for The BF Goodrich Corp Co), April polypropyleneoxide polyol and organic-silicone
10, 1990 block copolymer based polyol intermediates
148 4,929,661 US Noomen; Arie; Peters; Petrus J., (for Aqueous coating composition containing a
Akzo NV), May 29, 1990 functional organic compound, a curing agent, and
a dispersing agent
149 4,931,157 US Valko; Joseph T.; Plasynski; Joseph E. Epoxy resin advancement using urethane polyols
; Miller; Robert D. (for PPG Industries), and method for use thereof
June 5, 1990
150 4,933,056 US Corrigan; Victor G.; Zawacky; Steven Cationic electrodepositable compositions through
R. (for PPG Industries), June 12, 1990 the use of sulfamic acid and derivatives thereof
151 4,937,318 US Yamaguchi; Keizaburo; Tanabe; Aromatic amine resins
Yoshimitsu; Urakami; Tatsuhiro;
Yamaguchi; Akihiro; Yamaya;
Norimasa; Ohta; Masahiro (for Mitsui
Toatsu Chemicals), June 26, 1990
152 4,940,770 US Speranza; George P.; Lin; Jiang-Jen, Novel compositions from polyoxyalkylene amines
(for Texaco Chemical Co), July 10, and epoxides
1990
153 4,946,924 US Speranza; George P.; Lin; Jiang-Jen; Secondary isopropyl amine derivatives of
Templeton; James H. (for Texaco polyoxyalkylene diamines and triamines
Chemical Co), August 7, 1990
154 4,981,944 US Bartels; Tamme; Maters; Gerardus J. Liquid coating composition curable at ambient
W. M., (for Akzo NL), January 1, 1991 temperatures
155 4,996,282 US Noren; Gerry K.; Krajewski; John J.; Cationically curable polyurethane compositions
Murphy; Edward J. (for DeSoto, Inc), having vinyl ether functionality
February 26, 1991
156 5,017,632 US Charles W. Bredow, Frederick J. Filled water-based coating compositions for
Schindler, and Charles E. Warburton, concrete and metal are prepared using epoxy
Jr. (to Rohm & Haas Co.), May 21, resin, acrylic polymer latex, and JEFFAMINE
1991. EDR-148.
157 5,017,676 US Cuscurida; Michael (for Texaco), May Acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate in the cure of
21, 1991 epoxy resins




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Publication/Date
158 5,051,494 US Yamaguchi; Keizaburo; Tanabe; Thermosetting resin composition comprising an
Yoshimitsu; Urakami; Tatsuhiro; aromatic amine
Yamaguchi; Akihiro; Yamaya;
Norimasa; Ohta; Masahiro (for Mitsui
Toatsu Chemicals), September 24,
1991
159 5,070,119 US R. M. Nugent, Jr., T. A. Ward, P. D. A flexible intumescent coating composition cured
Greigger, and J. A. Seiner (to PPG in part with JEFFAMINE® D-2000 did not crack in
Industries, Inc.), December 3, 1991. 27 cold test cycles.
160 5,075,503 US Lin; Jiang-Jen; Speranza; George P. Hydrazine terminated polyoxyalkylene amines
(for Texaco Inc.), December 24, 1991
161 5,081,168 US Granville D. Edwards and Bonita S. A polyoxyalkylenediamine, a polyamide, and 2-
Wilson (to Shell Oil Co.), January 14, ethyl-4-methyl-imidazole are used to cure an
1992. epoxy system for in situ rehabilitation of fractured
and/or corroded pipes.
162 5,086,162 US Speranza, GP; Su, W-Y (for Texaco Polyether amide from polyalkylene glycol diamine
Chemical) February 4, 1992 and diacid mixture
163 5,087,661 US Aoki; Masaaki; Kamiyama; Masay GBi; Moisture curable polyurethane composition
Honda; Hiroshi, (for Mitsui Toatsu comprising polyaldimine
Chemicals), February 11, 1992
164 5,091,574 US Lin; Jiang-Jen; Speranza; George P. Polyoxyethylene diamine derivatives of diglycidyl
(for Texaco Chemical Corp), February ethers
25, 1992
165 5,093,455 US Cuscurida; Michael; Speranza; George N,N-dialkylenediamines as curing agents for
P.; Su; Wei-Yang, (for Texaco blocked isocyanate coatings
Chemical Corp), March 3, 1992
166 5,096,556 US Corrigan; Victor G.; Zawacky; Steven Cationic microgels and their use in
R.(for PPG Industries) , March 17, electrodeposition
1992
167 5,098,947 US Metzger; Carl W.; Hauefler; Hartmut; Waterborne coatings and binder systems for use
Munch; Jurgen; Freese; Karl-Heinz; therein
Orth; Ulrich (for Akzo NV), March 24,
1992
168 5,106,945 US Hare; Clive H. (FOR Monsanto Co), Polyglycidamide-poly(meth)-acryloyl-polyamine
April 21, 1992 compositions
169 5,108,832 US Nugent, Jr.; Richard M.; Ward; Flexible intumescent coating composition
Thomas A.; Greigger; Paul P; Seiner;
Jerome A. (for PPG Industries Inc),
April 28, 1992
170 5,151,470 US Sanders; Joseph; Mafoti; Robson; Aminocrotonates as curing agents for epoxy
Markusch; Peter H. (for Miles Inc), resins
September 29, 1992
171 5,178,646 US Barber, Jr.; Loren L.; Christianson; Coatable thermally curable binder precursor
Todd J.; Preston; Jay B. (For 3M), solutions modified with a reactive diluent,
January 12, 1993 abrasive articles incorporating same, and
methods of making said abrasive articles
172 5,189,073 US Klockemann Werner; Humbert Heiko; Process For The Production Of Expanded
Primeaux; Dudley J (for Texaco Materials Based On Polyurea Elastomers
Chemical) February 23, 1993




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Publication/Date
173 5,191,033 US Cuscurida; Michael; Speranza; George Epoxy resin composition containing aminated
P.; Sellstrom; Kathy B. (for Texaco epoxy resin-alkylene oxide polyols
Chemical Corp), March 2, 1993
174 5,202,383 US Moriarity; Thomas C.; McCollum; High throw power electrodeposition system
Gregory J.; Zwack; Robert R.; Scott;
Matthew S.; Zawacky; Steven R.;
Corrigan; Victor G. (for PPG
Industries), April 13, 1993
175 5,204,385 US Naderhoff; Bryan A. (for Reichhold Water reducible epoxy resin curing agent
Chemicals Inc), April 20, 1993
176 5,206,200 US Bush; Richard W.; Carney; Eugene E Tin catalysts for hydrolysis of latent amine curing
(for WR Grace & Co), April 27, 1993 agents
177 5,213,897 US Baron; Arthur L.; MacLeay; Ronald E.; Epoxy resins containing bound light stabilizing
Kmiec; Jennifer P. (for Elf Atochem groups
North America, Inc), May 25, 1993
178 5,221,707 US Chihara; Kohji Y.; Goewey; James R. Coating blend compositions
(for GenCorp, Inc.) , June 22, 1993
179 5,227,198 US Laura; Alger E.; Easton; Ronald J.; Aqueous coating composition and method of use
Frisch; Kurt C.; Xiao; Han X. (for A-
Line Products), July 13, 1993
180 5,233,009 US Madan; Sanjeev; Kogelnik; Hans- Polyurethanes comprising the reaction of an
Joachim; Daneshvar; Majid; Pantone; isocyanate terminated prepolymer and a polyol
Richard S.; Clatty; Jan L. R. (for Miles, mixture comprising triols and an organic diamine
Inc.) August 3, 1993
181 5,235,007 US Alexander; David C.; Crawford; Epoxy curing agents
Wheeler C.; Klein; Howard P. (for
Texaco Chemical Co), August 10,
1993
182 5,246,984 US Darwen; Stuart P.; Cornforth; Daniel A. Water dispersible polyamine-epoxy adduct and
(for Air Products & Chemicals Inc), epoxy coating composition
September 21, 1993
183 5,300,363 US Laura; Alger E.; Easton; Ronald J.; Aqueous coating composition
Frisch; Kurt C.; Xiao; Han X. (for A-
Line Products Corp), April 5, 1994
184 5,300,584 US Farkas; Julius, (for The BF Goodrich Low viscosity diprimary amine reactive modifiers
Corp), April 5, 1994 for epoxy resins
185 5,312,886 US House; David W.; Scott, Jr.; Ray V. ; Bis(N-alkylaminocyclohexyl)methanes as curing
Gattuso; Mark J. (for UOP), May 17, agents for polyurethanes and polyureas
1994
186 5,318,851 US Baron; Arthur L.; MacLeay; Ronald E.; Epoxy resins containing bound light stabilizing
Kmiec; Jennifer P. (for Elf Atochem groups
North America, Inc), June 7, 1994
187 5,320,716 US Akhtar Masud, June 14, 1994 Electroactive, insulative and protective thin films
188 5,320,738 US Kaufman; Marvin L. (for PPG Reduced yellowing electrodepositable coating
Industries), June 14, 1994 composition
189 5,338,568 US Lohnes; Steven A.; Crowne; Francis R. Additive for two component epoxy resin
(for Cappas Ltd), August 16, 1994 compositions
190 5,342,918 US Howelton Richele T; Speranza George Carboxyl-terminated polyetheramines
P (for Texaco Chemical Corp) August
30, 1994



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Publication/Date
191 5,359,123 US Ohshima; Toshiyuki; Ishibashi; Hideo; Polyoxyalkylene polyamines having secondary
Tamura; Rie; Yamamoto; Satoshi; amino groups
Izumo; Takaharu (for Nippon Paint Co
Ltd) October 25, 1994
192 5,382,606 US Butikofer; Pierre-Andre (for Sika AG, Curing agent for aqueous epoxy resin
vorm. Kaspar Winkler & Co) January dispersions, process for its preparation and its
17, 1995 use
193 5,391,596 US Muto; Kiyoshi; Suzuki; Hiroshi (for Emulsifying epoxy resin composition and curable
Asahi Denka Kogyo KK; A.C.R. Co. composition
Ltd.) February 21, 1995
194 5,422,042 US Waddill: Harold G.; Su; Wei-Yang; Imidazolidone polyetheramine strength enhancing
Cuscurida; Michael; Renken; Terry L. additives of epoxy resin systems
(for Huntsman Corp) June 6, 1995
195 5,427,856 US Laura; Alger E.; Easton; Ronald J.; Aqueous coating composition
Frisch; Kurt C.; Xiao; Han X. (for A-
Line Products Corp) June 27, 1995
196 5,430,107 US Bederke; Klaus; Kerber; Hermann; Binding-agent composition, coating agent
Schubert; Walter; Brock; Thomas; containing said binding agent, and the use
Loffler; Helmut (for Hreberts GmbH), thereof
July 4, 1995
197 5,461,122 US Yilgor; Iskender; Yilgor; Emel O. (for Waterproof, moisture vapor permeable
Th. Goldschmidt AG), October 24, polyurethane urea polymer comprising
1995 polycaprolactone and polydimethyl siloxane soft
segments
198 5,475,039 US Butikofer; Pierre-Andre (for Sika AG, Curing agent for aqueous epoxy resin
vorm. Kaspar Winkler & Co) December dispersions, process for its preparation and its
12,1995 use
199 5,488,092 US Kausch; Charles M.; Melby; Earl G.; Low VOC, primerless, polyurethane compostions
Sharma; Satish C. (for GenCorp, Inc.)
January 30, 1996
200 5,489,630 US Walker; Frederick H. (for Air Products Self-emulsifying epoxy curing agent
and Chemical Inc.) February 6, 1996
201 5,508,324 US Cook; Michael I. (for Air Products and Advanced polyamine adduct epoxy resin curing
Chemicals Inc.) April 16, 1996 agent for use in two component waterborne
coating systems
202 5,508,326 US Muto; Kiyoshi; Suzuki; Hiroshi (for Emulsifying epoxy resin composition and curable
Asahi Denka Kogyo KK; A.C.R. Co. composition
Ltd.) April 16, 1996
203 5,508,373 US Shah; Shailesh; Moon; Robert M. (for Curing agents for epoxy resins based on 1,2-
Henkel Corp) April 16, 1996 diaminocyclohexane
204 5,510,432 US Schmalstieg; Lutz; Rettig; Rainer; Mixed blocked isocyanate prepolymers, a
Konig; Eberhard (for Bayer process for their production and their use for the
Aktiengesellschaft) April 23, 1996 production of flexible epoxy resin systems
205 5,521,273 US Yilgor; Iskender; Yilgor; Emel O. (for Waterproof, moisture vapor permeable polymers,
Th. Goldschmidt AG), May 28, 1996 films and coated textiles and other materials
206 5,527,839 US Walker; Frederick H. (for Air Products Self-emulsifying epoxy curing agent based on the
and Chemical Inc.) June 18, 1996 reaction product of epoxy resin and polyether
polyol
207 5,536,775 US Curatolo; Benedict S.; Apicella, Jr.; Amine curable compositions
Frank V.; Richardson, Sr.; Thomas W.
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Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
208 5,539,042 US Birch; D'Arcie W. (for 3M) July 23, Aqueous, coatable, thermally condensable
1996 composition
209 5,565,505 US Papalos; John G.; Grinstein; Reuben Self-dispersing curable epoxy resins, dispersions
H.; Shah; Shailesh; Mulvey; Joseph L.; made therewith, and coating compositions made
Jewell; Brian G. (for Henkel Corp) there from.
October 15, 1996
210 5,565,506 US Papalos; John G.; Grinstein; Reuben Self-dispersing curable epoxy resins, dispersions
H.; Shah; Shailesh; Mulvey; Joseph L.; made therewith, and coating compositions made
Jewell; Brian G. (for Henkel Corp) therefrom
October 15, 1997
211 5,567,480 US Johnson; John R.; Roder; William R.; Coal tar enamel coated steel pipe and process for
Henegar; C. Sherill (for Reily producing same
Industries Inc) October 22, 1996
212 5,567,748 US Klein; Dieter H.; Wessely; Hans J. (for Water compatible amine terminated resin useful
The Dow Chemical Co) October 22, for curing epoxy resins
1996
213 5,569,687 US Sanborn; Timothy P.; Beno, Jr.; Waterborne zinc-rich primer compositions
Joseph M.; Flynn; Roy W. (for Rohm &
Haas Co) October 29, 1996
214 5,576,416 US Walker; Frederick H. (for Air Products Amide-containing self-emulsifying epoxy curing
& Chemicals Inc) November 19, 1996 agent
215 5,582,704 US Valko; Joseph T.; Faucher; Philippe; Cationic resin and capped polyisocyanate curing
Karabin; Richard F.; Moriarity; Thomas agent suitable for use in electrodeposition
C.; Eswarakrishnan; V.; Van Buskirk;
Ellor J.; McCollum; Gregory J.; Kollah;
Raphael O. (for PPG Industries Inc)
December 10, 1996
216 5,583,167 US Chou; Jason L.; Shah; Shailesh; Curing agents for aqueous epoxy resins
Jewell; Brian G.; Moon; Robert M. (for
Henkel Corp) December 10, 1996
217 5,587,409 US Dreischhoff; Dieter; Geisler; Joerg- Curing agents for aqueous epoxy resin
Peter; Godau, Claus; Hoenel, Michael; dispersions
Stengel-Rutkowski, Bernhard (for
Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft) December
24, 1996
218 5,589,534 US Metzger; Carl W.; Feith; Bernhard H.; Aqueous coating compositions including a
Gruber; Ute; Zedler; Angelika A.; van reactive emulsifier
Wingerde; Mario M. M. (for Akzo Nobel
NV) December 31, 1996
219 5,596,030 US Walker; Frederick H. (for Air Products Amide-containing self-emulsifying epoxy curing
& Chemicals Inc) January 21, 1997 agent
220 5,599,855 US Walker; Frederick H. (for Air Products Self-emulsifying epoxy curing agent
& Chemicals Inc) February 4, 1997
221 5,604,269 US Papalos; John G.; Shah; Shailesh; Self-dispersing curable epoxy resins, dispersions
Grinstein; Reuben H.; Mulvey; Joseph made therewith, and coating compositions made
L.; Jewell; Brian G. (for Henkel Corp) there from
February 18, 1997
222 5,606,010 US Erhan; Semih; Nithianandam; Methods for the preparation of inherently metal
Varabelambedu S. (for Erham, Semih) binding poly-amine-quinone polymers
February 25, 1997



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Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
223 5,620,747 US Laura; Alger E.; Easton; Ronald J.; Aqueous coating composition
Frisch; Kurt C.; Xiao; Han X (A-line
Products Corp) April 15, 1997
224 5,623,046 US Papalos; John G.; Shah; Shailesh; Self-dispersing curable epoxy resins, dispersions
Grinstein; Reuben H.; Mulvey; Joseph made therewith, and coating compositions made
L.; Jewell; Brian G. (for Henkel Corp) there from
April 22, 1997
225 5,626,915 US Laura; Alger E.; Easton; Ronald J.; Aqueous coating composition
Frisch; Kurt C.; Xiao; Han X. (for A-
Line Products Corp) May 6, 1997
226 5,629,046 US Laura; Alger E.; Easton; Ronald J.; Aqueous coating composition
Frisch; Kurt C.; Xiao; Han X. (for A-
Line Products Corp) May 13, 1997
227 5,630,922 US Eswarakrishnan; Venkatachalam; Electrodepositable coating composition
Zwack; Robert R.; McCollum; Gregory containing diorganotin dicarboxylates
J.; Kollah; Raphael O. ; Zawacky;
Steven R. (for PPG Industries Inc) May
20, 1997
228 5,643,976 US Arora; Kartar S.; Wiggins; Michael S. Self-dispersing curable epoxy resin dispersions
(for Henkel Corp) July 1, 1997 and coating compositions made there from
229 5,648,409 US Arora; Kartar S.; Devore; David I.; Aqueous self-dispersible epoxy resin based on
Grinstein; Reuben H.; Johnson; epoxy-amine adducts containing aromatic
Grannis S.; Papalos; John G.; Shah; polyepoxide
Shailesh (for Henkel Corp) July 15,
1997
230 5,652,024 US Sanborn; Timothy Parker; Beno, Jr.; Waterborne zinc-rich primer compositions
Joseph Michael; Flynn; Roy Wesley
(for Rohm & Haas Co) July 29, 1997
231 5,652,323 US Papalos; John G.; Grinstein; Reuben Self-dispersing curable epoxy resins, dispersions
H.; Shah; Shailesh; Mulvey; Joseph L.; made therewith, and coating compositions made
Jewell; Brian G. (for Henkel Corp) July there from
29, 1997
232 5,656,712 US Mirossay; Thomas C., August 12, 1997 Polyurethane compositions and method

233 5,674,567 US Kausch; Charles M.; Melby; Earl G; Low VOC, primerless, polyurethane compositions
Sharma; Satish C. (for GenCorp Inc)
October 7, 1997
234 5,674,951 US Hargis; I. Glen; Kausch; Charles M.; Abrasion-resistant and low friction coating
Livigni; Russell A.; Malik; Aslam A.; compositions
Melby; Earl G.; Vitus; Francis Jerome
(for GenCorp Inc) October 7, 1997
235 5,684,080 US van der Heide; Evert; Vietje; Gerrit; Aqueous polymer emulsion
Wang; Pen-Chung (for Shell Oil Co)
November 4, 1997
236 5,688,877 US Koenig; Raymond A.; Gan; Joseph; Kinetically controlled in-situ generation of catalytic
Hayman; Richard J. (for The Dow species for the curing of epoxy/amine
Chemical Co) November 18, 1997 compositions
237 5,688,905 US Walker; Frederick Herbert (for Air Primary-tertiary diamines mixed with polyamines
Products & Chemicals Inc) November as epoxy resin hardeners
18, 1997




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Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
238 5,693,423 US Laura; Alger E.; Easton; Ronald J.; Aqueous coating composition
Frisch; Kurt C.; Xiao; Han X (for A-Line
Products Corp) December 2, 1997
239 5,713,393 US Johnson; John R.; Roder; William R.; Coal tar enamel coated steel pipe and process for
Henegar; C. Sherill (for Reily same
Industries Inc) February 3, 1998
240 5,719,210 US Arora; Kartar S.; Shah; Shailesh (for Self-dispersing curable epoxy resins, dispersions
Henkel Corp) February 17, 1998 made therewith, and coating compositions made
there from
241 5,723,565 US Cuscurida; Michael; Sellstrom; Kathy Epoxy curing agents
Beth (for Huntsman Petrochemical
Corp) March 3, 1998
242 5,726,251 US Wilkinson; Steven Paul; DePinto; Powder coatings of amine-reactive resins and
Jeffrey Thomas (for Air Products and amine carbamate salts
Chemicals Inc) March 10, 1998
243 5,750,595 US Arora; Kartar S.; Wiggins; Michael S. Self-dispersing curable epoxy resin dispersions
(for Henkel Corp) May 12, 1998 and coating compositions made there from
244 5,756,566 US Laura; Alger E. (for A-Line Products Aqueous coating composition
Corp) May 26, 1998
245 5,760,107 US Valko; Joseph T.; Faucher; Philippe; Cationic resin and capped polyisocyanate curing
Karabin; Richard F.; Moriarity; Thomas agent suitable for use in electrodeposition
C.; Eswarakrishnan; V. ; Van Buskirk;
Ellor J.; McCollum; Gregory J.; Kollah;
Raphael O. (for PPG Industries Inc)
June 2, 1998
246 5,760,108 US Arora; Kartar S.; Johnson; Grannis S.; Self-dispersing curable epoxy resin esters,
Aloye; James (for Henkel Corp) June dispersions thereof and coating compositions
2, 1998 made there from
247 5,763,506 US Papalos; John G.; Grinstein; Reuben Self-dispersing curable epoxy resins, dispersions
H.; Shah; Shailesh; Mulvey; Joseph L.; made therewith, and coating compositions made
Jewell; Brian G. (for Henkel Corp) there from
June 9, 1998
248 5,767,191 US Zawacky; Steven R.; Zwack; Robert Electrodepositable coating compositions and
R.; McCollum; Gregory J.; method for improved cure response
Eswarakrishnan; Venkatachalam;
Coleridge; Edward R. (for PPG
Industries Inc) June 16, 1998
249 5,770,657 US Chou; Jason L.; Shah; Shailesh; Curing agents for aqueous epoxy resins
Jewell; Brian G.; Moon; Robert M. (for
Henkel Corp) June 23, 1998
250 5,798,398 US Shah; Shailesh; Cash; Ronald J.; Epoxy curing agent comprising a
LaFreeda; Ronald; Aloye; James; metaxylylenediamine-epichlorohydrin adduct
Mulvey; Joseph L. (for Henkel Corp)
August 25, 1998
251 5,804,051 US Boyd; Donald W.; Zwack; Robert R.; Electrodepositable coating compositions
Kollah; Raphael O.; McCollum; containing hydroxamic acid and derivatives
Gregory J. (for PPG Industries Inc) thereof, and their use in a method of
September 8, 1998 electrodeposition




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Publication/Date
252 5,804,640 US Laura; Alger E.; Easton; Ronald J.; Aqueous coating composition
Frisch; Kurt C.; Xiao; Han X. (for A-
Line Products Corp) September 8,
1998
253 5,820,987 US Kaufman; Marvin L.; O'Neill; Patrick; Cationic electrocoating compositions, method of
Karabin; Richard F.; McCollum; making, and use
Gregory J. (for PPG Industries Inc)
October 13, 1998
254 5,843,580 US van der Heide; Evert; Vietje; Gerrit; Aqueous polymer emulsion
Wang; Pen-Chung (for Shell Oil Co)
December 1, 1998
255 5,851,618 US Liddell; Kimm Alan; Marzouk; Mohsen Peelable floor coating systems
Mohamed (for Illinois Tool Works Inc)
December 2, 1998
256 5,859,125 US van der Heide; Evert; Vietje; Gerrit; Aqueous polymer emulsion
Wang; Chung (for Shell Oil Co)
January 22, 1999
257 5,859,135 US Doomen; Willy Frans Anna; van Aqueous coating compositions comprising
Wingerde; Mario Martinus Maria (for functional group-containing crosslinkable resins
Akzo Nobel NV) January 12, 1999
258 5,869,571 US van der Heide; Evert; Vietje; Gerrit; Aqueous polymer emulsion
Wang; Chung (for Shell Oil Co)
February 9. 1999
259 5,874,490 US Arora; Kartar S.; Papalos; John G.; Aqueous self-dispersible epoxy resin based on
Johnson; Grannis S. (for Henkel Corp) epoxy-amine adducts
February 23, 1999
260 5,880,190 US Laura; Alger E (for A-Line Products Aqueous coating composition
Corp) March 9, 1999
261 5,936,012 US Kaufman; Marvin L.; O'Neill; Patrick; Cationic electrocoating compositions, method of
Karabin; Richard F.; McCollum; making, and use
Gregory J. (for PPG Industries Inc)
August 10, 1999
262 5,948,229 US Zwack; Robert R.; Eswarakrishnan; V.; Electrodepositable coating compositions having
Coleridge; Edward R.); McCollum; improved cure response
Gregory J. (for PPG Industries Ohio
Inc) September 7, 1999
263 5,965,673 US Hermansen; Ralph D.; Lau; Steven E Epoxy-terminated prepolymer of polyepoxide and
(for Raytheon Co) October 12 ,1999 diamine with curing agent
264 5,972,189 US McMurdie; Neil D.; Zwack; Robert R.; Electrodepositable coating composition
Scott; Matthew S.; White; Michael L. containing bismuth diorganodithiocarbamates and
(for PPG Industries Ohio Inc) October method of electrodeposition
26, 1999
265 5,993,972 US Reich; Murray H.; Teffenhart; John; Hydrophilic and hydrophobic polyether
Kuzma; Jirina (for Tyndale Plains- polyurethanes and uses therefore
Hunter, Ltd) November 30, 1999
266 6,008,313 US Walker; Frederick Herbert; Starner; Polyamide curing agents based on mixtures of
William Edward; Smith; Andrea Kare polyethyleneamines and piperazine derivatives
(for Air Products & Chemicals)
December 28, 1999




78
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
267 6,017,432 US Boyd; Donald W.; Eswarakrishnan; Electrodepositable coating compositions and their
Venkatachalam; McCollum; Gregory use in a method of cationic electrodeposition
J.; Zwack; Robert R. (for PPG
Industries Ohio Inc) January 25, 2000
268 6,037,444 US Rannard; Steven Paul; Davis; Nicola Selective chemical reactions and polymers of
Jane (for Courtalds Coatings Ltd) controlled architecture produced thereby
March 14, 2000
269 6,110,341 US McMurdie; Neil D.; Zwack; Robert Electrodeposition baths containing organic
R.(for PPG Industries Ohio Inc) August phosphorous-based compounds
29, 2000
270 6,127,459 US Stark, deceased; Charles J.; Back; Epoxy resin curing agent-reacting acid-terminated
Gayle Edward; Elmore; Jimmy D.; polyalkylene glycol with excess amine-terminated
Ghosh; Kalyan; Wang; Pen-Chung; polyamine-epoxy resin adduct
Dangayach; Kailash (for Shell Oil Co)
October 3, 2000
271 6,136,894 US Stark, deceased; Charles J.; Back; Aqueous epoxy resin system with curing agent
Gayle Edward; Elmore; Jimmy D.; from reacting acid-terminated polyalkylene glycol
Ghosh; Kalyan; Wang; Pen-Chung; with epoxy-amine adduct
Dangayach; Kailash (for Shell Oil Co)
October 24, 2000
272 6,153,709 US Xiao; Hong; Hsu; Gloria (for Essex Chip resistant, vibration damping coatings for
Specialty Products Inc) November 28, vehicles
2000
273 6,174,977 US Ariyoshi; Yasushi; Suzuki; Takehiro Cold curable resin composition and base material
(for Toyo Ink Mfg Co, Ltd) January 16, coated with the same
2001
274 6,190,525 US Karabin; Richard F.; Kaylo; Alan J. (for Electrodeposition baths containing yttrium
PPG Industries Ohio Inc) February 20,
2001
275 6,220,305 US Johnson; John R.; Roder; William R.; Coal tar enamel coated steel pipe and process for
Henegar; C. Sherill (for Reilly same
Industries Inc) April 24, 2001
276 6,221,934 US Stark; (deceased) Charles J.; Elmore; Aqueous dispersions of epoxy resins
Jimmy D.; Back; Gayle Edward; Wang;
Pen-Chung; Galgoci, Jr.; Ernest
Charles (for Shell Oil Co) April 24,
2001
277 6,221,998 US Okuhira; Hiroyuki; Adachi; Naoya (for One-pack type moisture-curable composition
The Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd) April
24, 2001
278 6,225,376 US Klein; Dieter H.; Joerg; Karin C. (for In-situ emulsified reactive epoxy polymer
The Dow Chemical Co) May 1, 2001 compositions
279 6,235,811 US Robeson; Lloyd Mahlon; Dubowik; Epoxy resin-vinyl acetate polymer blends
David Alan (for Air Products &
Chemicals Inc) May 22, 2001
280 6,245,835 US Klein; Dieter H.; Wessely; Hans Polymeric amines and reactive epoxy polymer
Juergen; Joerg; Karin C. (for The Doe compositions
Chemical Co) June 12, 2001




79
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
281 6,248,225 US Palaika; Thomas; Van Buskirk; Ellor J.; Process for forming a two-coat electrodeposited
Corrigan; Victor G.; Eswarakrishnan; composite coating the composite coating and
Venkatachalam; McCollum; Gregory chip resistant electrodeposited coating
J.; Zwack; Robert R.; Faucher; composition
Philippe; Wilson; Craig A.; Szymanski;
Chester J.; Poole; James E.; Ritter;
Keith S.; Syput; Richard F. (for PPG
Industries Ohio Inc) June 19, 2001
282 6,258,919 US Vogel; Thomas; Wegmann; Alex (for Curable epoxy resin compositions containing
Vantico Inc) July 10, 2001 water-processable polyamine hardeners
283 6,258,920 US Starner; William Edward; Dubowik; Polyamidoamine curing agents based on
David Alan; Walker; Frederick Herbert mixtures of fatty and aromatic carboxylic acids
(for Air Products & Chemicals Inc.)
July 10, 2001
284 6,265,519 US Krebaum; Paul (for Molex Inc) July 24, Thiolamide curing agents
2001
285 6,271,333 US Okuhira; Hiroyuki (for The Yokohama One-part moisture curable composition
Rubber Co Ltd) August 7, 2001
286 6,277,903 US Sophiea; Daniel P.; Hoffman; Dwight Sound damping coating of flexible and rigid epoxy
K.; Hong; Xiao; Hsu; Gloria (for The resins
Dow Chemical Co. Essex Specialty
Products) August 21, 2001
287 6,277,928 US Stark; (deceased) Charles J.; Back; Epoxy-functional amidoamine reacted with
Gayle Edward; Elmore; Jimmy D.; excess polyamine and monoepoxy as epoxy
Ghosh; Kalyan; Wang; Pen-Chung; curative
Dangayach; Kailash , August 21, 2001
288 6,281,321 US Kelly; Sarah Anne Mackie; Birkert; Coating compositions
Christopher Robin; Andrews; Adrian
Ferguson (for Akzo Nobel NV) August
28, 2001
289 6,294,596 US Papalos; John G.; Shah; Shailesh; Self-dispersing curable epoxy resins, dispersions
Grinstein; Reuben H.; Mulvey; Joseph made therewith, and coating compositions made
L.; Jewell; Brian G. (for Henkel Corp) there from
September 25, 2001
290 6,297,320 US Tang; Weilin; Ding; Hong; D'Errico; Curable compositions comprising acetoacetoxy
Michael J.; Leonard; David P. (f0r The and imine functionality
Sherwin-Williams Co) October 2, 2001
291 6,303,672 US Papalos; John G.; Shah; Shailesh; Self-dispersing curable epoxy resins, dispersions
Grinstein; Reuben H.; Mulvey; Joseph made therewith, and coating compositions made
L.; Jewell; Brian G. (for Henkel Corp) there from
October 16, 2001
292 6,359,037 US Stark; (deceased) Charles J.; Back; Polyamine/epoxy-functional amidoamine product
Gayle Edward; Elmore; Jimmy D.; with epoxy resin
Ghosh; Kalyan; Wang; Pen-Chung ;
Dangayach; Kailash , March 19, 2002
293 6,417,292 US Moriarity; Thomas C.; Eswarakrishnan; Electrodepositable coating compositions including
Venkatachalam; Ritter; Keith S. (for ungelled reaction products of epoxy functional
PPG Industries Ohio Inc) July 9, 2002 polyesters and amines coated substrates and
methods of electrocoating using the same




80
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
294 6,423,425 US Faucher; Philippe; McCollum; Gregory Article having a chip-resistant electrodeposited
J.; Zwack; Robert R.; Pawlik; Michael coating and a process for forming an
J.; Van Buskirk; Ellor James; Corrigan; electrodeposited coating
Victor G (for PPG Industries Ohio Inc)
July 23, 2002
295 6,437,055 US Moriarity; Thomas C.; Webster, Jr.; Electrodepositable coating from gelled epoxy-
Geoffrey R. (for PPG Industries Ohio polyester and amine
Inc) August 20, 2002
296 6,479,103 US Wichelhaus; Winfried; Lorenz; Conductive organic coatings
Wolfgang; Kunz; Andreas; Krey;
Wolfgang (for Henkel
Kommanditgellschaft auf Aktien)
November 12, 2002
297 6,489,396 US Nakamura; Kazuhiko; Yokota; (Meth)acrylate ester-based resin composition
Yoshiyuki; Takahashi; Kunio; Yoshida;
Masaya (for Nippon Shokubai Co Ltd)
December 3, 2002
298 6,525,159 US Okuhira; Hiroyuki; Adachi; Naoya; One-pack cold moisture curable resin
Ishikawa; Kazunori; Takeda; compositions
Toshimitsu; Kotani; Yo (for Yokohama
Rubber Co Ltd) February 25, 2003
299 6,538,060 US Rajalingam; Ponswamy; Rajalingam; Bituminous polyurethane interpenetrating
Umarani (for Urecoats International elastomeric network compositions as coatings
Inc) March 23, 2003 and sealants for roofing and other applications
300 6,596,519 US Takayanagi; Masaaki; Iguchi; Akiko; Paint or ink composition
Gotou; Naoki; Tsuchiya; Kinya (for The
Nisshin Oil Mills Ltd) July 22, 2003
301 6,605,668 US Buter; Roelof; Roelofs; Andreas Water-dissipatable polymers and their use in
Henricus Johannes (for Akzo Nobel aqueous systems
NV) August 12, 2003
302 6,624,276 US Lamers; Paul H.; Martz; Jonathan T.; Curable polyurethanes, coatings prepared there
Meyers; Lawrence D.; Novak; Carolyn from, and method of making the same
A.; Olson; Kurt G.; Rowley; James P.;
Verardi; Christopher A. (for PPG
Industries Ohio Inc) September 23,
2003
303 6,734,263 US Eadara; Rajan; Jacob; Roy P.; Ahn; Non-polyvinyl chloride, interpenetrating network
Yushin; Philip; Biju; Joseff; Jori (for epoxy/urethane acrylates
Diversified Chemical Technologies Inc)
May 11, 2004
304 6,756,466 US Okuhira; Hiroyuki; Adachi; Naoya; One-part, room temperature moisture curable
Ishikawa; Kazunori; Takeda; resin composition
Toshimitsu; Kotani; Yo (for Yokohama
Rubber Co Ltd) June 29, 2004
305 6,794,479 US Okuhira; Hiroyuki; Ishikawa; Kazunori Composition of polyepoxide and oxazolidine
(for Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd) latent curing agent
September 21, 2004
306 58,059,220 JP Toto Kasei, April 8, 1983. A coating resin prepared from piperazine or an
amine containing a piperazine ring and a diepoxy
compound is used in lacquer-type paint and in
metal primers and wire coatings.



81
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
307 60,170,621 JP Nianippon Ink, September 4, 1985. An epoxy coating composition containing a
urethane-modified epoxy resin and a
polyoxypropyleneamine offers improved flexibility
and toughness and good weather and chemical
resistance.
308 1,951,524 GR Wilhelm Becker (to Reichhold-Albert- The condensation product of phenol,
1,951,525 GR Chemie A.-G.), June 11, 1970 and poly(oxypropylene)diamine, and formaldehyde
August 6, 1970. was reacted with glycidyl ethers to form luminous,
elastic, thin coatings.
309 193,685 EP Y. Ledisert, P. Faucher, J. Roue, and The reaction product of a polyoxyalkyleneamine
4,689,131 US R. L. Scriven (to PPG France), and a monoepoxide is used as an additive in a
October 9, 1986, and August 25, 1987. cathodic electrodeposition coating. The additive
provides improved surface appearance without
affecting adhesion of topcoats.
310 215,005 EP F. Augustin, K. Comehl, W. Lindner, Hollow fillers are used in an amine-cured epoxy
3,562,263 GR and H. Wassong (to BASF, Farber & coating to provide transport of liquids away from
Faser), April 20, 1988 and May underground walls.
26,1988.
311 297,696 EP H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development A composition containing cycloaliphatic resin,
01,006,063 JP Corp.), January 4,1989 acrylate ester, polyetherpolyamine, and
aminoethylpiperazine cures rapidly to give
nonyellowing, weather-resistant, high gloss
coatings.
312 4,432,850 US T. C. Moriarity and W. J. Geiger (to A non-gelled polyepoxide-polyoxyalkyleneamine-
4,420,574 US PPG Industries), February 21,1984, polyamine resin is partially neutralized and used
70,550 EP December 13,1983 in an aqueous dispersion for electro-deposition
coating to provide a good surface, a good
flexibility, and water resistance.
313 4,507,363 US S. W. Chow and D. F. Smith (to Union Epoxy compositions containing polyetheramines
166,906 EP Carbide), March 26,1985 and polyamidoamines used as coatings for
corroded metal surfaces require little
pretreatment or cleaning of the metal to provide
excellent protection and corrosion resistance.
314 4,748,167 USEP S. K. Das, K. 0. Olson, and J. A. Claar Water-based coating compositions with improved
172,460 (to PPG Industries), February 26, 1986 pot life contain acrylic polymers and a
polyoxyalkyleneamine.
315 4,810,535 US McCollum and Zwack (to PPG), July 3, The ungelled product from reaction of glycidol
326,937 EP 1989 and August 9, 1989. with an amine-functional adduct of monoepoxide
and polyoxyalkyleneamine is used in electro-
deposition coatings to reduce surface defects and
improve topcoat adhesion.
316 434,098 A2 EP R. M. Gerkin, A. D. Beckett, and J. V. JEFFAMINE® T-5000 is used in a photocurable
Koleske (to Union Carbide Chemicals composition to improve adhesion, flexibility,
and Plastics Company, Inc.), June gloss, and other properties of coatings and
26,1991. adhesives.
317 5,034,434 US M. P. Beresford and R. P. Redman (to Non-gelled reaction products from JEFFAMINE®
200,397 EP ICI), July 23, 1991. amines, secondary amines, polyepoxides, and
monoepoxides are cross-linked in aqueous
coatings applied by cathodic electrodeposition.
The composition offers improved emulsion
stability, throwing power, and corrosion
resistance.


82
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
318 5,266,630 US Noomen; Arie; Peters; Petrus J. (for Aqueous coating composition containing a
2,075,022 GB Akzo NV), November 30, 1993 functional organic compound, a curing agent, and
a dispersing agent
319 5,272,189 US Kaufman; Marvin L. (for PPG Reduced yellowing electrodepositable coating
2,038,786 CA Industries), December 21, 1993 composition
320 AU8388101 AU Evsioukov Serguei; Hohn Arthur; Polymeric aldehyde/polyetheramine networks
Nouwen Jan; Schornick Gunnar (for
BASF AG) January 2, 2002
321 CA2003678 CA Speranza, GP; Su, W-Y (for Texaco Elastomeric Polyamide Hot Melt Adhesives
Development Corp) August 27, 1990
322 CA2038632 CA Speranza, GP; Su, W-Y (for Texaco Polyether Amides and Methods Therefore
Development Corp) October 11, 1990
323 CA2038668 CA Champion, Donald H.; Speranza, Polyether Amides from Mixed Amines
George P; Su, Wei-Yang (for Texaco
Chemical) October 11, 1991
324 CA2057632 CA Champion Donald H; Speranza Polyamides From Polyetheramines,
George P (for Texaco Chemical) June Hexamethylene Diamine And Adipic Acid
15, 1992
325 CA2086719 CA Cuscurida, M; Su, WY; Renken, TL; Heimd-Containing Polyetheramine Curative For
Waddill, HG (for Texaco Chemical) Flexible, Toughened Products
February 14, 1994
326 EP0301706 EP Speranza, GP; Waddill, HG; Lin, JJ Aromatic amidoamines.
(for Texaco Development Corp)
February 1, 1989
327 EP0490482 EP Speranza, GP; Champion, DH (for Polyamides from polyetheramines,
Texaco Chemical) June 17, 1992 hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid.
328 EP0511620 EP Ferrara Matteo (for Sir Ind SPA) Aqueous emulsions of epoxyphenolic resins.
November 4, 1992
329 EP0517167 EP Chen Shuh-Chung; Schoenberg Jules Flexible polyetheramines useful in epoxy
(for National Starch Chem Invest) compositions.
December 9, 1992
330 EP0688796 EP Krull Matthias Dr; Mielcke Erdmann; Reaction products of polyetheramines with
Feustel Michael Dr (for Hoechst AG) polymers of alpha, beta- unsaturated dicarboxylic
December 27, 1995 acids
331 GB1260966 Becker, Wilhelm (Reichhold-Albert Curing of Epoxy Resins
Chmie Aktiengesellschaft) January 19,
1972
332 KR8101536 KR Waddill, H (for Texaco Development Method of Improving Properties of Curable Epoxy
Co) October 27, 1981 Resin Composition
333 KR8101793 KR Waddill, H; (for Texaco Development Process For Accelerated Cure Of Epoxy Resins
Co) November 14, 1981
334 KR9506724 KR Im Yong; Cha Jong-Won; Park Song- Method For Producing Polyamid
Kwang (for Kolon Inc) June 21, 1995
335 TW520382 TW Schmidt, Dale C (for Dow Chemical A composition comprising a stable aqueous
Co) February 11, 2003 dispersion of an acid salt of a polyetheramine
having structural units and a method of preparing
a stable aqueous dispersion of an acid salt of a
polyetheramine
336 WO9730103 WO Chang Dane; Wilson David A(for Dow Preparation Of Polyetheramines And
Chemical Co) August 21, 1997 Polyetheramine Derivatives



83
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
337 S. V. Urs and S. A. Puglia, A flexible epoxy coating system suitable for use
"Development of Flexible Epoxy on naval aircraft was prepared by curing an
Resins and Coatings," AD-645,798, epoxy resin with a polyoxypropylene diamine of
December 1966; U.S. Govt. Res. ~500 mol. wt.
Develop. Dept., July 25,1967.
338 R. G. Young and W. R. Howell, Polyoxypropylenediamines, e.g., JEFFAMINE®
Modern Paint and Coatings 65, No. 3, D-230 and D-400, are regarded as "the best
p. 43 (1975). known long-chain aliphatic amines for decorative
coatings." Coating formulations are included.
339 V. S. Nithianandam, F. Chertok, and S. Studies of JEFFAMINE® D-400-p-benzoquinone
Erhan, Journal of Coatings Technology polymers show that addition of polyamines and
1991, 63(796), 47-9. epoxides to the polymer can cause improved
adhesion.
340 Y. Huang and A. J. Kinloch, Polymer Toughness of a cured epoxy system is increased
1992, 33(6), 1331-2. through microvoid formation caused by the
addition of JEFFAMINE® BuD-2000 to the
system.
Curing Accelerated
341 972,096 CA Norman B. Godfrey and Heinz Schulze Fast-curing epoxy resin compositions were
(to Jefferson Chemical Co.), July 29, prepared by addition of carbon disulfide to
1975. polyoxyalkylenepolyamines or other polyamines
prior to mixing with a bisphenol A-epichlorohydrin
polymer.
342 2,854,827 GR H. G. Waddill and H. P. Klein (to Products of the reaction of the hydrogenated
Texaco Development Corp.), June 28, adduct of acrylonitrile and JEFFAMINE® D-400
1979. with formaldehyde and phenol were rapidly
reacting hardeners with epoxy resins.
343 3,591,556 US Norman B. Godfrey and Heinz Schulze Fast, efficient, low-temperature cures of epoxy
(to Jefferson Chemical Co.), July 6, resins were achieved through use of a
1971. combination of a sulfonamide and a
polyoxyalkylenepolyamine.
344 3,639,928 US Floyd E. Bentley and Norman B. Curing of epoxy resins with
Godfrey (to Jefferson Chemical Co.), polyoxypropylenepolyamines was accelerated in
February 8, 1972. the presence of a mixture of N-(3-
aminopropyl)piperazine and salicylic acid.
345 3,666,721 US Norman B. Godfrey (to Jefferson A mixture of a polyamine and an organic sulfonic
Chemical Co.), May 30, 1972. acid was synergistic for accelerating the cure of
epoxy resins with polyoxypropylenediamines.
346 3,703,497 US Donald D. Carlos and David A. Shimp Oximes (e.g., benzaldoxime) accelerated the cure
(to Celanese Coating Co.), November of epoxy resins and a polyoxypropylenediamine.
21,1972.
347 3,740,373 US Floyd E. Bentley and Norman B. A synergistic mixture of
Godfrey (to Jefferson Chemical Co.), polyoxyalkylenepolyamine, N-(3-
June 19, 1973. aminopropyl)piperazine, salicylic acid, and a
phenol cured epoxy resins rapidly.
348 3,785,997 US Norman B. Godfrey (to Jefferson Epoxy resins were cured rapidly with
Chemical Co.), January 15, 1974. polyoxypropylenepolyamines in the presence of
synergistic accelerator mixtures of organic
sulfonic acids, e.g., methanesulfonic acid, and
polyamines, e.g., N-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine.




84
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
349 4,110,313 US Heinz Schulze and H. G. Waddill (to Epoxy resins cured rapidly in the presence of
Texaco Development Corp.), August dithiocarbarnate salts of
29, 1978. polyoxyalkylenepolyamines.
350 4,127,514 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development An accelerator for curing epoxy resins with
Corp.), November 28, 1978. polyoxyalkylene polyamines consisted of a
mixture of iminobispropylamine and salicylic acid.
351 4,195,153 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development Noncrystallizing accelerators of epoxy resin
Corp.), March 25, 1980. curing with polyoxyalkylenepolyamines consist of
mixtures of N-(aminoethyl)piperazine, piperazine,
and triethanolamine.
352 4,226,971 US H. G. Waddill and H. P. Klein (to Mannich bases prepared from aminopropyl
Texaco Development Corp.), October derivatives of JEFFAMINE® amines act as fast
7, 1980. curing agents for epoxy resins.
353 4,332,720 US Heinz Schulze, R. L. Zimmerman, and N,N1-polyoxyalkylene bis(lactam carboxylic
H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development acids) prepared from polyoxyalkylenepolyamines
Corp.), June 1, 1982. and unsaturated carboxylic acids were used as
accelerators in curing epoxy resins.
354 4,436,891 US Umeda and Y Iwase (to Texaco Inc.), Alkyleneimine-modified
March 13, 1984. polyoxyalkylenepolyamines cure epoxy resins at
a high rate.
355 4,683,282 US A. B. Goel (to Ashland Oil, Inc.), July JEFFAMINE® amine/boron trifluoride complexes
28, 1987. act as accelerators for cure of epoxy resins.
356 4,683,284 US A. B. Goel (to Ashland Oil, Inc.), July Oxime carbonates are used as accelerators for
28, 1987. amine-cured epoxy systems.
357 4,714,750 US R. A. Grigsby and G. P. Speranza (to New epoxy curing agents and/or accelerators are
Texaco Inc.), December 22, 1987. Mannich condensates prepared from 2,6-di-tert-
butylphenol and polyoxyalkyleneamines.
358 4,761,466 US A. B. Goel (to Ashland Oil, Inc.), Thiocyanate complexes of imidazolines are used
August 2, 1988. to accelerate Cure of epoxy resins by
JEFFAMINE® T-403 or ethyleneamines.
359 4,775,734 US A. B. Goel (to Ashland Oil, Inc.), Non-nucleophilic acid/amine salts are used as
October 10, 1988. catalysts for amine-cured epoxy compositions in
coatings, adhesives, RIM, composites, and other
applications.
360 4,835,241 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Chemical Equivalent reacting amounts of an acrylate ester
Company), May 30, 1989. and piperazine are added to a resin system cured
with a JEFFAMINE® polyetheramine in order to
speed cure rate.
361 86,036,855 JP Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, A dimethylaminomethylated polyalkenylphenol is
August 20, 1986. used to accelerate cure of an epoxy resin with an
amine hardener.
362 86,047,161 JP Nitto Electric Ind., October 17, 1986. Low viscosity epoxy systems containing amine-
terminated liquid rubber copolymers and cured
with polyoxyalkyleneamines use catalysts such
as dicyandiamide or boron trifluoride complexes.
363 3,875,072 US H. G. Waddill (to Jefferson Chemical An accelerator combination of piperazine and an
2,411,284 GR Co.), April 1, 1975; and September 26, alkanolamine was used to cure epoxy resins with
1974. a polyoxyalkylenepolyamine.




85
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
364 4,326,050 US Heinz Schulze, R. L. Zimmerman, and An aromatic polyamine-cured epoxy composition
2,721,626 GR H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development containing an accelerator prepared from
Corp.), April 20, 1982 and December JEFFAMINE® amines and a lactam offers high
15, 1977. strength and good solvent resistance.
Curing Latent
365 2,143,845 GR Don L. Stevens and Harold E. Filter (to Salts of polyoxypropylenediamine and several
Dow Chemical Co.), March 2, 1972. acids were useful epoxy resin curing agents.
366 2,145,833 GR Ronald L. DeHoff (to R. T. Vanderbilt Liquid mixtures of an aniline/formaldehyde
Co., Inc.), March 23, 1972. condensate with 2-methylimidazole and, in some
cases, a polyoxypropylenediamine have good
shelf life and are useful as epoxy resin hardeners.
367 2,847,363 GR Friedrich Stockinger, Sameer H. Eldin, Complexes of amine-terminated polyoxyalkylenes
and Friedrich Lohse (to Ciba-Geigy A.- with divalent metal salts of sulfonic, phosphonic,
G.), May 10, 1979. or carboxyl-containing N heterocyclic carboxylic
acids were used as cross-linking agents for epoxy
resins. Epoxy/complex mixtures had a shelf life of
~70 days.
368 4,218,377 US Sameer H. Eldin, Friedrich Lohse, and Metal salt/amine complexes in which the amine
Friedrich Stockinger (to Ciba-Geigy was a polyoxyalkylenepolyamine (JEFFAMINE®
Corp.), August 19, 1980. D-2000) cured readily when mixed with an epoxy
resin and heated to ~160oC. Such mixtures were
stable at 400C for ~70 days.
369 4,403,078 US D. R. McCoy and H. G. Waddill (to Latent-cure adhesives are made from epoxy
Texaco Inc.), September 6, 1983. resins and polyoxyalkylenediamine biguanide
salts as curing agents.
370 4,683,283 US A. B. Goel (to Ashland Oil, Inc.), July Epoxy systems cured with JEFFAMINE® D-400
28, 1987. use phenol carbonates as latent accelerators.
371 53,034,896 JP Hitachi Chemical, March 31, 1978. An epoxy composition uses carboxylic acids and
imidazolyltriazine compounds to give waterproof
and chemical-resistant compositions with rapid
cure at elevated temperatures.
372 53,034,897 JP Hitachi Chemical, March 31, 1978. Azine derivatives of imidazoles and carboxylic
anhydrides are used as latent accelerators in
amine-cured epoxy compositions.
373 57,167,370 JP Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd., Storage-stable adhesives are made from epoxy
October 15,1982. resin-polyoxypropylenediamine adducts,
dicyandiamide, and a dimethylurea.
374 Sameer H. Eldin, Friedrich Stockinger, A zinc-pyrrolidone-carboxylate complex with a
Friedrich Lohse, and Grety Rihs, J. long-chain polyoxypropylenediamine
Appl. Poly. Sci. 26,3609-3622 (1981). (JEFFAMINE® D-2000) was found to give
variable processing and properties over a broad
range.
Construction
375 1,250,568 RU E. V. Grigorev, T. P. Fornicheva, and A floor covering coating system which provides
E. G. KutGBhtin (to Ind. Bldgs. Struc. increased working life and reduced air
Res.), August 15, 1986. entrapment is formulated using a
polyoxypropyleneamine.
376 4,383,054 US Heinz Schulze and H. G. Waddill (to Hydrophilic polymers prepared from aqueous
Texaco Inc.), May 10, 1983. solutions or dispersions of
polyoxypropylenepolyamine N,N'1polymethylene
sulfonates are described which are useful for
earth injection where consolidation is needed.


86
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
377 4,487,805 US Kathy B. Sellstrom (to Texaco Inc.,) A decorative epoxy resin aggregate binder
November 12, 1984. formulation is described in which the curing
system is composed of a
polyoxypropylenediamine, N-
aminoethylpiperazine, nonylphenol, and a UV
absorber.
378 4,487,806 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and H. G. Waddill A decorative aggregate binder system is
(to Texaco Inc.), November 12, 1984. described, the curing system of which is
composed of a polyoxypropylenediamine,
nonylphenol, and m-xylenediamine.
379 4,490,485 US Peterson; Bruce W.; Speranza; Manufacture of flexible polyurethane foam
George P; Grigsby, Jr.; Robert A., (for containing a condensation product of
Texaco, Inc.), December 25, 1984 polyethylene terephthalate
380 4,501,830 US Miller; Richard; Rizer; Janine M., (for Rapid set lightweight cement product
Research One Limited Partnership),
February 26, 1985
381 4,574,145 US Cummings; Lowell O., (for Chemcrete Epoxy curing agents and method for making them
International), March 4, 1986
382 4,754,590 US Gordon; James R., July 5, 1988 Method and apparatus for waterproofing concrete
383 4,808,476 US Mikus; John P.; Robert W.; Ward; Method for protecting heat sensitive substrates
Thomas A.; Seiner; Jerome A. (for from fire and excessive heat and resulting article
PPG Industries), February 29, 1989
384 4,828,879 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and H. G. Waddill JEFFAMINE polyoxyethyleneamine is used in a
(to Texaco Inc.), May 9, 1989. formulation for epoxy polymer concrete useful for
road and bridge deck overlays.
385 4,904,711 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and H. G. Waddill A rapid-cure epoxy polymer concrete formulation
(to Texaco Chemical Company), useful in large scale repair of cementitious road
February 27, 1990. and bridge surfaces is disclosed.
386 5,049,411 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and H. G. Waddill Polymer concrete compositions that bond well to
(to Texaco Chemical Company), wet or dry cementitious surfaces are presented.
September 17, 1991.
387 5,162,060 US Bredow; Charles W.; Schindler; Polymer-modified cements with improved
Frederick J, (for Rohm & Haas Co), chemical resistance
November 10, 1992
388 5,350,784 US Darwen; Stuart P.; Cornforth; David A. Water dispersible polyamine-epoxy adduct and
(for Air Products and Chemical Inc), epoxy coating composition
September 27, 1994
389 6,160,041 US Neuner; John D. (for Hexcel Corp) Non-cementious concrete-like material
December 12, 2000
390 6,271,305 US Rajalingam; Ponswamy; Rajalingam; Bituminous polyurethane interpenetrating
Umarani (for Urecoats Technologies elastomeric network compositions as coatings
Inc) August 7 ,2001 and sealants for roofing and other applications
391 M. W. Phillips and J. E. Selwyn,
"Epoxies for Wood Repairs in Historic
Buildings," U.S. Department of the
Interior, Washington, D.C., 1978.
392 Kathy B. Sellstrom, "Curing Agents for Properties of epoxy polymer concrete systems
Epoxy Polymer Concrete," presented cured with the JEFFAMINE® polyetheramines
at the SPI/Epoxy Resin Formulators are discussed.
Conference, Nashville, Tenn., October
10-12, 1990.



87
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
Elastomers
393 451,951 EP G. P. Speranza and W. Y. Su (to JEFFAMINE® EDR-192 and aromatic
Texaco Chemical Company), October dicarboxylic acids are used to produce polymers
16, 1991. having good water absorbency.
394 463,717 EP F. C. Onwumere (to Becton, Melt-processable polyurea-polyurethane
Dickinson, and Co.), January 2, 1992. elastomers containing JEFFAMINE® D-4000 are
used in the manufacture of biocompatible medical
goods.
395 2,245,896 GB M. A. Cannon, R. Ruelle, and D. L. Polyurethane-containing polymer blends modified
Dufour (to Monsanto Company), with JEFFAMINE® ED-600 offer improved low
January 15, 1992. temperature flexibility and reduced plasticizer
migration in high temperature molding operations.
396 3,299,169 US John C. Smith (to Dow Chemical Co.), A diglycidyl ether mixture was cured with a
January 17, 1967. polyoxypropylenediamine and ethanolamine to
form a soft elastomer with high elongation, tensile
strength, and clarity.
397 3,607,792 US G. P. Speranza and H. G. Waddill (to A carbon-black-filled epichlorohydrin-ethylene
Jefferson Chemical Co.), September oxide copolymer was vulcanized with a
21, 1971. polyoxypropylenepolyamine to give ozone-
resistant rubbers.
398 3,829,354 US James L. Bertram, et al. (to Dow Epoxy resins were modified with hydrogen sulfide
Chemical Co.), August 13,1974. and cured with an aminated polyglycol to produce
flexible laminates.
399 4,321,342 US John E. Davis and Moses Cenker (to A graft polymer dispersion prepared through
BASF-Wyandotte Corp.), February 27, reaction of a primary amine-terminated
1982. polyoxypropylene polyether polymer
(JEFFAMINE® product) with styrene and
acrylonitrile was used to cure a polyepoxide
compound. The reactants formed an elastomeric
material after heat curing.
400 5,025,100 US J. J. Lin and G. P. Speranza (to Epoxy-terminated adducts prepared with
Texaco Chemical Company), June 18, JEFFAMINE® D-2000 and a liquid epoxy resin
1991 were reacted with JEFFAMINE® EDR-148 to give
a flexible cured polymer.
401 5,053,465 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Chemical Polyoxyalkylenepolyamines are reacted with
Company), October 1, 1991. blocked isocyanate prepolymers to yield cured
elastomeric products with exceptional elongation,
impact strength, and peel strength.
402 5,059,672 US Engebretson; Preston J. (for Thare Elastomeric reaction products of aromatic
Coat Inc.), October 22, 1991 isocyanate, aliphatic isocyanate and aromatic
diamine components
Encapsulation & Mouldings
403 301,706 EP H. G. Waddill, J. J. Lin, and G. P. Amidoamines prepared from a mixture of di- and
Speranza (to Texaco Development tricarboxylic acids/ esters/anhydrides and a
Corp.), February 1, 1989. mixture of polyoxyalkylene di- and triamines allow
rapid cure of epoxy resins at ambient
temperatures.
404 301,716 EP J. J. Lin and G. P. Speranza (to Polyamido diprimary amines prepared by reacting
Texaco Development Corp.), February JEFFAMINE® amines with dicarboxylic acids and
1, 1989. then reacting the resulting diacids with lower
molecular weight diprimary amines are used to
cure epoxy resins.


88
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
405 435,497 EP G. P. Speranza and J. J. Lin (to Polyamidoamines useful as epoxy curing agents
Texaco Chemical Company), July 3, are prepared from JEFFAMINE® EDR-1 92 and
1991. maleic or fumaric acids or derivatives of the acids.
406 01,165,619 JP Toshiba Chem., June 29, 1989. Polyetherdiamines used as curing agents in a low
color epoxy formulation offer improved
processability and good mechanical strength,
heat resistance, and toughness.
407 1,565,585 FR Farbwerke Hoechst A.-G., May 2, A propylene glycol amine was used to cure a
1969. glycidyl ether to form a heat-stable, impact-
resistant composition useful in soundproofing
applications.
408 1,567,293 FR Farbwerke Hoechst A.-G., May 16, Hard epoxy resins with improved impact strength
1969. were prepared by treating glycidyl ethers with
oxypropylated trimethylolpropane-ammonia
reaction products.
409 2,052,334 FR John L. Evans and Anthony G. Rubino Gas gyroscope bearing envelopes with improved
(to Singer-General Precision, Inc.), shrinkage resistance were prepared comprising a
May 14, 1971. matrix and a coated hemispheric cavity. The
cavity was coated with an epoxy resin hardened
with a polyoxypropyleneamine.
410 2,611,019 GR Peter R. Ramirez (to American Optical Compositions suitable for injection molding of
Corp.), September 15, 1977. eyeglass frames contained bisphenol A epoxy
resin, polyether diamine, and the trimethyl
derivative of hexamethylenediamine. Fast curing
time permitted large-scale production and low
softening temperature made lens insertion easy.
411 2,748,603 GR Heinz Schulze and H. G. Waddill (to Polyoxypropylenediamines, treated with urea,
Texaco Development Corp.), May 24, phenyl isocyanate, formic acid, or benzyl alcohol
1978. to prepare diureides or diamides, were used as
additives to improve thermal shock resistance of
epoxy resins hardened with methyl-5-norbornene-
2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride.
412 2,827,269 GR L. Kamlander (to Optique du Monde), Isophoronediamine and a polypropylene glycol
August 30, 1979. triamine are used with an epoxy resin to produce
eyeglass frames.
413 03,275,714 JP Kazumasa Kobayashi, et al. (to Nippon JEFFAMINE® D-400 is a component of a liquid
Steel Chemical Co., Ltd.; Dainippon epoxy hardener system also containing epoxy
Ink and Chemicals, Inc.), December 6, adducts or Michael adducts of imidazoles and
1991. other aliphatic or alicyclic primary amines. The
hardener blend provides longer pot life and
improved strength.
414 3,929,717 US S. Yen Lee (to U.S. Government, A composition useful for potting electronic
Secretary of Army), December 30, components but easily removable for repair of
1975. components was formulated from a
dihydroxyphenol; the diglycidyl ether of a
polyoxyalkylene glycol; a polyoxyalkylenediamine
(JEFFAMINE D-230); a primary or secondary
alkyl-, alkanol-, or arylamine; and
polyvinylpyrrolidone.




89
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
415 4,002,598 US Texaco Development Corp., January Improved epoxy properties are obtained with a
11, 1977. curing agent prepared from a
polyoxyalkyleneamine and urea, a urea-forming
compound, or a difunctional isocyanate.
416 4,122,068 US Lee G. Meyer (to Texaco Development Epoxy resin compositions containing
Corp.), October 24, 1978. bis(hydroxyalkyl)poly(oxyalkylene)dicarbamates
and cured with bicyclic anhydrides have high
resistance to thermal shock and are useful in
encapsulating or potting compounds.
417 4,146,701 US H. G. Waddill and Heinz Schulze (to Thermal shock properties of epoxy resin castings
Texaco Development Corp.), March cured with aromatic or alicyclic anhydrides were
27, 1979. improved by addition of a
polyoxypropylenediamine succinimide bisurea.
418 4,169,177 US H. G. Waddill and Heinz Schulze (to Resistance to thermal shock of certain anhydride-
Texaco Development Corp.), cured epoxy resins was enhanced without
September 25, 1979. compromising heat deflection properties by
addition of a diamide of a
polyoxyalkylenepolyamine-urea condensate with
a 400-4500 mol. Wt.
419 4,178,427 US H. G. Waddill and Heinz Schulze (to Polyether-ureas, prepared by treating a
Texaco Development Corp.), polyoxyalkylenepolyamine with urea, were good
December 11, 1979. curing agents for epoxy resins, imparting
improved tensile shear strength, flexural strength,
and elongation.
420 4,267,044 US Kroplinski; Thaddues F.; Case; Barton Thixotropic polyurethane compositions as
C. (for NL Industries), May 12, 1981 sealants for membrane separatory devices
421 4,436,891 US A. Umeda and Y Iwase (to Mitsui- An epoxy curing agent prepared from an
Texaco Chemical), March 13, 1984. alkyleneimine and a polyoxyalkylenepolyamine
provides reduced cure time and improved epoxy
properties.
422 4,514,530 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and G. P. Speranza Recycled polyethylene terephthalate is reacted
(to Texaco Inc.), April 30, 1985. with an excess of various amines, including
JEFFAMINE® D- and T-series polyetheramines,
to give modified curing agents with faster cure
rate than the unmodified amines.
423 4,518,749 US H. G. Waddill and Heinz Schulze (to Bis(hydrogen maleates) of
Texaco Development Corp.), May 21, polyoxyalkylenepolyamines cure epoxy resins to
1985. provide improved flexibility and reduced
brittleness.
424 4,522,933 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and H. G. Waddill Recycled polyurethane elastomers are reacted
(to Texaco Inc.), November 12, 1985. with excess amines, including JEFFAMINE® D-
and T-series amines, to give extended amine
curing agents.
425 4,533,719 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development Monoamides are prepared from fatty
Corp.), August 6, 1985. monocarboxylic acids and
polyoxyalkylenepolyamines for use as epoxy
curing agents for adhesives and thermal
shock-resistant encapsulations.
426 4,578,412 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and H. G. Waddill Amine curing agents containing recycled
(to Texaco Inc.), March 25, 1986. polyurethane elastomeric materials or Mannich
condensates of the extended amines are useful
as epoxy curing agents.



90
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
427 4,581,422 US G. P. Speranza and H. G. Waddill (to A new epoxy curing agent is prepared from
Texaco Inc.), April 6, 1986. dicyandiamide, formaldehyde, and JEFFAMINE®
amines; the viscous liquid product is easily
dispersed uniformly into epoxy resins.
428 4,581,423 US G. P. Speranza and H. G. Waddill (to Epoxy resins are cured with Mannich
Texaco Chemical Company), April 8, condensates prepared from hydantoin,
1986. formaldehyde, and JEFFAMINE®
polyetheramines.
429 4,736,011 US H. G. Waddill and G. P. Speranza (to Mannich condensates from imidazole,
Texaco Chemical Company), April formaldehyde, and a JEFFAMINE®
5,1988. polyetheramine are used as epoxy curing agents.
430 4,769,438 US R. L. Zimmerman, H. G. Waddill, and A variety of polyetheramines prepared from
Kathy B. Sellstrom (to Texaco aminated, propoxylated 1,4-butanediol are used
Chemical Company), September 6, to cure epoxy resins.
1988.
431 4,789,721 US H. G. Waddill, J. J. Lin, and G. P. JEFFAMINE® products are condensed with
Speranza (to Texaco Chemical phenyl indane carboxylic acid to form an
Company), December 6, 1988. amidoamine useful as an epoxy curative.
432 4,825,000 US J. M. Larkin, R. L. Zimmerman, M. Polyether glycols modified with phenyl glycidyl
Cuscurida, and H. G. Waddill (to ether and then aminated are used as epoxy
Texaco Chemical Company), April 25, curing agents.
1989.
433 5,098,986 US G. P. Speranza and J. J. Lin (to Mannich condensates prepared from
Texaco Chemical Company), March JEFFAMINE® EDR-148, nonylphenol, and
24, 1992. formaldehyde are light-colored liquid products
useful as epoxy curing agents.
434 5,101,060 US G. P. Speranza and J. J. Lin (to Paired Mannich condensates prepared from
Texaco Chemical Company), March alkylphenols, formaldehyde, and two
31, 1992. polyoxyalkylenepolyamines are used as epoxy
curing agents.
435 5,109,098 US Harris, Haberman, and Joseph (to Imines and secondary amines prepared from
Dow Chemical), April 28, 1992. JEFFAMINE® DU-700 or other polyetheramines
with hydrogen bonding moieties in the backbone
are used in epoxy curing.
436 5,472,532 US Wallace, II; Ingvar A. (for Thiokol Ambient temperature mix, cast, and cure
Corp.) December 5, 1995 composite propellant formulations
437 8,400,376 WO L. 0. Cummings, February 2, 1984. Products of the reaction of polyetheramine with
urea-formaldehyde resins offer improved
toughness and strength when used to cure epoxy
resins.
438 61,069,819 JP Kanegafuchi Chem., April 10, 1986. A reactive epoxy resin composition for molding,
coating, or potting materials is modified with a
carboxyl-terminated butadiene nitrile rubber and
cured with amines, including polyetherdiamines.
Improvements in mechanical strength and
resistance to heat and impact are noted.
439 88,004,563 JP Mitsubishi Gas Chem. Ind., January An unsaturated epoxy ester composition
29, 1988. containing polyetherpolyamines or other amines
has viscosity suitable for preparing prepregs and
has high hot compression moldability.




91
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
440 4,574,143 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and H. G. Waddill Extended amine-type curing agents are prepared
131,401 EP (to Texaco, Inc.), March 4, 1986 from scrap polyethylene terephthalate and
60,036,526 JP polyoxypropyleneamines.
441 8,702,686 WO S. Druelle, J. Galy, F. MicfIdans, J. Epoxy prepolymers prepared from
224,422 EP Pascault, S. Montranal, and H. butadiene/acrylonitrile copolymers are cured with
62,502,346 JP Sautereau (to Dow), May 7, 1987, polyetherdiamines.
June 3, 1987, and September 10,
1987.
442 87,003,169 JP H. G. Waddill and H. P. Klein (to The Mannich condensate prepared from phenol,
2,854,827 GR Texaco Development Corp.), January formaldehyde, and an aminopropylene derivative
23, 1987 of a polyoxyalkyleneamine provides rapid cure of
epoxy resins at ambient temperatures.
443 91/13,109 WO J. A. Rinde, F. W. Mercer, K. Dawes, Cross-linked polyurea compositions prepared
and R. B.G. Bownik (to Raychem from JEFFAMINE® D-400 and blocked
Corporation), September 5, 1991. isocyanates are used in potting applications,
444 David Evans, John T. Morgan, et al., Epoxy resin systems were evaluated for use at
"Epoxy Resins for Superconducting liquid helium temperatures. The more shock-
Magnet Encapsulation." Report, 1972, resistant resins tested contained chains of
RHEPR-251, 27 pp. (Avail. Dept. NTIS polyether bonds. JEFFAMINE® products
[U.S. sales only] GBAEA). produced satisfactory systems.
445 H. G. Waddill, Soc. Adv. of Mat and The use of polyoxyalkylenediamine
bis(carbamoyl)ether to enhance properties of
Process Eng. 11th Nat Technical Conf,
182-194 (1979). adhesion and thermal shock was described.
Evidence for development of "microvoid" systems
was shown to explain the effectiveness of the
additive.
446 H. G. Waddill, Reinf. Plastics/Compos. Several epoxy resin systems were evaluated for
Inst., SPI ANTEC, 22b, 1 5 (1980). use with the reaction injection molding (RIM)
process. Polyoxyalkylenepolyamines were found
to have limited use in RIM applications because
of their low reactivity.
Laminates and Composites
447 3,819,474 US James L. Bertram, Ross C. Whiteside, Composites with good flexibility, tear resistance,
and Preston H. Franke, Jr. (to Dow and peel strength were prepared by reaction of a
Chemical Co.), June 25, 1974. hydrogen sulfide-modified epoxy resin with an
aminated polypropylene glycol. The resin curative
system was applied to spun Mylar to form a
flexible laminate.
448 4,294,792 US Arons; Irving J.; Merrill; Richard E.; Molded plastic parts, particularly spin-cast plastic
Drennan; Arthur P., (for Universal parts for eyeglass frames
Optical Co), October 13, 1981
449 4,389,515 US De La Mare; Harold E.; Brownscombe; Curable polyepoxide-unsaturated monomer
Thomas F. (for Shell Oil), June 21, compositions suitable for use in rim processes
1983
450 4,397,998 US De La Mare; Harold E.; Brownscombe; Curable epoxy compositions suitable for use in
Thomas F. (for Shell Oil), August 9, RIM processes
1983
451 4,528,308 US H. G. Waddill (to Texaco Development Epoxy resins are cured with blends of imidazole
Corp.), July 9,1985. or substituted imidazoles and JEFFAMINE®
polyetheramines.



92
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
452 4,605,688 US Kathy B. Sellstrom and H. G. Waddill Syntactic foam is prepared from an epoxy resin
(to Texaco Inc.), August 12, 1986. cured with JEFFAMINE® D-230, glass
microballoons, and amine-functional surfactants
and modifiers.
453 4,608,403 US Kathy B. Sellstrom (to Texaco Inc.), Syntactic foam formulations with improved
August 26, 1986. processing characteristics use an epoxy resin
binder cured with JEFFAMINE® D-230.
454 4,739,019 US Schappert; Raymond F. (Pittsburgh, Curable epoxy based compositions having
PA); Piccirilli; Robert M., (for PPG reduced shrinkage during cure
Industries, Inc.), April 19, 1988
455 4,746,381 US Parker; Delbert R.; Clark; Daren A. (for Method of making an end cap connection for a
AB Chance Co), May 24, 1988 fluid-resistance electrical device
456 4,746,541 US Marikar; Yusuf M. F.; Besso; Michael Electrically conductive thermally stabilized acrylic
M. (for Hoechst Celanese Corp) , May fibrous material and process for preparing same
24, 1988
457 4,781,971 US Marikar; Yusuf M. F.; Besso; Michael Electrically conductive thermally stabilized acrylic
M. (for Hoechst Celanese Corp) , fibrous material and process for preparing same
November 1, 1988
458 4,920,161 US Wang, Atkins, Esebi, and Dearlove (to High strength epoxy tooling compositions curable
General Motors Corp.), April 24, 1990. at room temperature are cured with
JEFFAMINE® amines and contain interstitially-
matched filler systems.
459 5,007,418 US Bartizal; Dennis C.; Campagna; Resilient semi-rigid orthopedic support devices
Anthony J. (for 3M), April 16, 1991
460 5,104,691 US Edwards; Granville D.; Wilson; Bonita Epoxy resin system for insitu rehabilitation of
S. (for Shell Oil Co), April 14, 1992 pipes
461 5,106,953 US Yamaguchi; Keizaburo; Tanabe; Aromatic amine resins, processes for producing
Yoshimitsu; Urakami; Tatsuhiro; the same and a thermosetting resin composition
Yamaguchi; Akihiro; Yamaya; containing the same
Norimasa; Ohta; Masahiro (for Mitsui
Toatsu Chemical Inc), April 21, 1992
462 5,192,594 US Madan; Sanjeev; Kogelnik; Hans- Process for the preparation of a polyurethane
Joachim; Daneshvar; Majid, (for Miles structural support
Inc), March 9, 1993
463 5,210,169 US Muhlebach; Andreas; Gruber; Erich, Thermosetting composition
(for Ciba-Geigy, Corp), May 11, 1993
464 5,250,632 US Waddill; Harold G.; Su; Wei-Yang; Heimd-containing polyetheramine curative for
Cuscurida; Michael; Renken; Terry L. flexible, toughened products
(for Texaco Chemical Co), October 5,
1993
465 5,275,888 US Madan; Sanjeev; Kogelnik; Hans- Process for the preparation of a composite
Joachim; Daneshvar; Majid; Pantone; structure comprising a ceramic enamel layer and
Richard S.; Clatty; Jan L. R. (for Miles, polyurethane layers
Inc.) January 4, 1994
466 5,334,441 US McGarry; Frederick J.; McBain; Composite comprising unsaturated polyester-
Douglas S. (for GenCorp, Inc), August flexible polymer block copolymer coated fiber
2, 1994 structures in a polyester or vinyl ester resin matrix
467 5,498,763 US McGarry; Frederick J.; McBain; Polyester-flexible polymer block copolymer
Douglas S. (for GenCorp, Inc), March coated fiber structures
12, 1996




93
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
468 5,565,499 US Klemarczyk; Philip T.; Okamoto; Filament-winding compositions for fiber/resin
Yoshihisa; Moran, Jr.; James P. (for composites
Loctite Corp) October 15, 1996
469 5,585,414 US Klemarczyk; Philip T.; Okamoto; Filament winding compositions for fiber/resin
Yoshihisa; Moran, Jr.; James P. (for composites
Loctite Corp)December 17, 1996
470 5,652,299 US Nakajima; Masayuki; Coalson; Richard Water-based vacuum forming laminating
L.; Olson; Kurt G.; Desai; Umesh C. adhesive
(for PPG Industries Inc) July 29, 1997
471 5,679,719 US Klemarczyk; Philip T.; Okamoto; Method of preparing fiber/resin composites
Yoshihisa; Moran, Jr.; James P.;
Levandoski; Susan; Hanlon; Veronica
(for Loctite Corp) October 21, 1997
472 5,879,810 US Ellwood; Michael; Leeming; Stephen Composite articles
William (for Zeneca Limited) March 9,
1999
473 5,952,446 US Krebaum; Paul (for Molex Inc) Elastomeric epoxy composition
September 14, 1999
474 6,031,046 US Smith; Stuart B. (for Hebr International Unsaturated polyester resin composition
Inc) February 29, 2000
475 6,093,496 US Cummings Gerald W; Clark Richard J; Polyolefin containing polyetheramine modified
Evans Randall K; Hess Kevin J; functionalized polyolefin
Crawford Wheeler C; Dominguez
Richard Joseph Gilbert; Henkee
Christopher S (for Huntsman Specialty
Chemical Corp) July 25, 2000
476 6,100,206 US Scholz; Matthew T.; Edgar; Jason L.; Light-weight orthopedic casting article
Callinan; Andrew J.; Ersfeld; Dean A.;
Mindaye; Worku A. (for 3M Innovative
Properties Co) August 8, 2000
477 6,121,398 US Wool; Richard; Kusefoglu; Selim; High modulus polymers and composites from
Palmese; Giuseppe; Khot; Shrikant; plant oils
Zhao; Ralph (for University of
Delaware) September 19, 2000
478 6,140,416 US Dominguez Richard J G; Evans Polyether amine modification of polypropylene
Randall Keith; Clark Richard J (for
Huntsman Specialty Chemical Corp)
October 31, 2000
479 6,146,574 US Clark Richard J; Crawford Wheeler C; Article manufacture using polyolefin containing
Henkee Christopher S (for Huntsman polyetheramine modified functionalized polyolefin
Specialty Chemical Corp) November
14, 2000
480 6,306,964 US Dominguez Richard J G; Evans Polyether amine modification of polypropylene
Randall Keith; Clark Richard J (for
Huntsman Specialty Chemical Corp)
October 23, 2001
481 6,410,127 US Kamae; Toshiya; Oosedo; Hiroki; Epoxy resin compositions, epoxy resin
Noda; Shunsaku; Kouchi; Shinji; compositions for fiber-reinforced composite
Sawaoka; Ryuji (for Toray Industries materials, and fiber-reinforced composite
Inc) June 25, 2002 materials comprising the same



94
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
482 6,573,309 US Reitenbach; Dirk; Muenz; Xaver (for Heat-curable, thermally expandable moulded
Henkel Teroson GmbH) June 3, 2003 park
483 6,649,707 US Rhodes; Larry F.; Goodall; Brian L.; Blends and alloys of polycyclic polymers
Mulhaupt; Rolf; Shick; Robert A.;
Benedikt; George M.; Jayaraman; Sai
Kumar; Soby; Lynn M.; McIntosh, III;
Lester H. (for Sumitomo Bakelite Co
Ltd) November 18, 2003
484 5,250,132 US Lapp; Christy K.; Grund; Paul D. (for Method of making a composite laminate having
Westinghouse Electric Corp), October an internally damped constraining layer
5, 1993
485 AU7477798 AU Cummings Gerald W; Dominguez Polyolefin containing polyetheramine modified
Richard J G; Clark Richard J; Evans functionalized polyolefin
Randall K; Hess Kevin J; Crawford
Wheeler C; Henkee Christopher S (for
Huntsman Specialty Chemical Corp)
December 8, 1998
486 CA1339907 CA Gerkin Richard Michael; Kirchner Process for the Manufacturing of N-
David Lee (for Huntsman Corp) June (Polyoxyalkyl)-N-(Alkyl)Amines
9, 1998
487 CA2377553 CA Esneault Calvin P; Maugans Rexford Hydrogenated Block Polymers Having Elasticity
A; Ho Thoi H; Patel Rajen M; And Articles Made There from
Bensason Selim; Chum Pak-Wing S;
Hahn Stephen F; Walsh Leonie K (for
Dow Chemical Co) February 8, 2001
488 CN1255151T CN Crawford W C; Dominguez R J G; Polyolefin containing polyetheramine modified
Henkee C S (for Huntsman Specialty functionalized polyolefin
Chemical Corp) May 31, 2000
489 KR20000236 KR Richard J Clark; Joseph Gilbert Polyetheramine Modified Compositions From
97 Richard Dominguez; Randall Keith Polypropylene And Production Process Thereof
Evans (for Huntsman Specialty
Chemical Corp) April 25, 2000
490 TW382021 TW Glass Terry W; Sanford Joe T; White A thermoplastic hydroxy-functionalized
Jerry E (for Dow Chemical Co) polyetheramine, the process for preparing the
February 11, 2000 same, a laminate structure comprising the same,
and a solvent or waterborne coating composition
491 T. T. Chiao, A. D. Cummins, and R. L. JEFFAMINE® products were used to cure epoxy
Moore, Composites, Vol 3, p. 10 tensile specimens.
(1972).
492 T. T. Chiao and R. L. Moore, JEFFAMINE® T-403 was used to cure epoxy
S.A.M.P.E. Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 3 resins forming a matrix for S-glass fiber strength
(1972). study.
493 T. T. Chiao and R. L. Moore An epoxy resin curable at room temperature with
(Lawrence Livermore Lab., Univ. of a polyethertriamine was used as a binder for
Calif., 201 Livermore, Calif.), Report filament winding for advanced fiber composites.
1973, UCRL-74751, The structures did not delaminate under stress.
494 T. T. Chiao, R. L. Moore, and C. M. JEFFAMINE® T-403 was used to cure epoxy
Walkup, S.A.M.P.E. Quarterly, Vol. 4, resin matrix in study of graphite fiber as
No. 4 (1973). reinforcement.




95
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
495 T. T. Chiao and R. L. Moore, Proc. Advanced fiber composites prepared from
bisphenol A diglycidyl ether cured with a
Annu. Conf. Reinf. Plast. Compos.
Inst., Soc. Plast. Ind. 1974, 29,16B. polyethertriamine, JEFFAMINE® T-403, had
good mechanical properties with neither
delamination nor fiber microbuckling.
496 C. C. Chiao, Proc. -Flywheel Technol. Several years of stress-rupture data for S-glass-
reinforced epoxy resins with a number of curing
Symp. 1975,160-3.
systems showed an apparent exponential
dependence of time-to-failure on the applied
stress. Among the systems evaluated was a
D.E.R. 332 resin/JEFFAMINE® T-403
combination.
497 T. T. Chiao, E. S. Jessup, and H. A. A bisphenol A-based epoxy resin cured with a
Newey, S.A.M.P.E. Quarterly 1975, polyethertriamine, JEFFAMINE® T-403, was
6(3), 38-42. recommended for filament winding application or
lay-up processes.
498 P. Ciriscioli and A. MGBherjee, Failure The creep behavior of bisphenol A diglycidyl
Modes Compos. 1976, 3,170-81. ether cross-linked with JEFFAMINE® T-403 was
studied between 23oC and 156oC. Specimens
deformed in creep only at ~80oC.
499 J. A. Rinde and H. A. Newey Data on properties of epoxy resin systems
(Lawrence Livermore Lab., Univ. of studied at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory were
Calif., Livermore, Calif.), Report 1976, collected and reported. Curing agents described
UCID-17219. See ERDA Energy Res. include several JEFFAMINE® products.
Abstr., 1977, 2(6), Abstr. No. 14260.
500 T. T. Chiao, C. C. Chiao, and R. J. Accelerated tests for prediction of long-term
Sherry, Proc. Int. Conf. Fract. Mech. durability by substitution of time with temperature
Technol. 1977, 1, 257-69. and stress gave good results in polyamide fiber
composite testing. A D.E.R. 332/JEFFAMINE® T-
403 composite reinforced with glass fiber showed
a slight decrease in strength in 4-year tests.
501 Linda L. Clements and R. L. Moore, Longitudinal tensile properties of a Kevlar 49 fiber
S.A.M.P.E. Quarterly 1977, 9(l),6-12. composite with a room-temperature-cured D.E.R.
332/JEFFAMINE® T-403 matrix were quite good
and improved over a moderate-temperature-
curable epoxy system.
502 R. L. Kolek and R. D. Blaugher, This paper describes an advanced metal-fiber
reinforced composite with thermal expansion
Advances in Cryogenic Engineering,
24, 256 (1978). characteristics quite close to those of copper.
JEFFAMINE® T-403 is the curing agent.
503 Roger J. Morgan, E. T. Montes, and A number of epoxy resin systems were tested for
Wayne J. Steele, Polymer 1982, 23, tensile deformation and various failure processes
295-304. were studied. One of the curing agents used was
an aliphatic polyetheramine, JEFFAMINE® T-
403.
504 Morgan and Walkup, J. App. Polymer Epoxy systems cured with various amines,
Sci. 1987, 34, 37-46. including JEFFAMINE® T-403, were evaluated
for suitability in filament-wound carbon fiber
composites.




96
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
Miscellaneous
505 122,810 EP S. Dabi (to Personal Products Co.), An absorbent, flexible, resilient cellular product
October 24, 1984. that absorbs body fluids is derived from epoxy
resins and polyoxyalkylenepolyamines.
506 1,793,655 GR Texaco Development Corp., July 27, Preparation of polyoxyalkylenepolyamines for use
1978. as epoxy curing agents is disclosed.
507 3,472,771 US Pierce Leonard Jr; Grimm Donald C Lubricating Compositions Including A Polymer
(for Union Carbide Corp) October 14, Which Contains A Salt Or Amide Of A
1969 Polyetheramine And An Acid
508 4,129,416 Heinz Schulze (to Texaco Reaction of urea-terminated polyetheramines with
Development Corp.), December formaldehyde produces resin that does not shrink
12,1978. on storage.
509 4,181,682 US L. W. Watts and H. G. Waddill (to Preparation of an aminated, propoxylated
Texaco Development Corp.), January polybutanediol useful as an epoxy curing agent is
1, 1980. disclosed.
510 4,189,002 US Martin; Robert C. (for The Dow Method for rigless zone abandonment using
Chemical Co), February 19, 1980 internally catalyzed resin system
511 4,255,311 US S. H. Eldin and H. Gysin (to Ciba- A storage-stable, formaldehyde-free composition
Geigy Corp.), March 10, 1981. useful as a textile-treating agent for crease
resistance derives from a water-soluble epoxy
resin, an acrylic copolymer, and a
polyoxypropylenepolyamine.
512 4,362,856 US Kluger; Edward W. (for Milliken Poly-(-2-aminoalkyl)polyamines
Research Corporation ), December 7,
1982
513 4,485,236 US Rasmussen; Jerald K.; Heilmann; Azlactone-functional compounds
Steven M.; Palensky; Frederick J., (for
3M), November 27, 1984
514 4,487,987 US J. H. Paslean and C. S. Steele (to Described is a method of decolorizing mixtures of
Texaco Inc.), November 12, 1984. N-aminoethylpiperazine,
polyoxypropylenediamines, and nonylphenol with
N,N1-diethylhydroxylamine.
515 4,490,510 US L. 0. Cummings, December 25, 1984. A new class of epoxy curing agents is revealed
that utilizes the monomer of urea-formaldehyde
and amines which include the
polyoxypropylenepolyamines.
516 4,508,854 US S. Dabi (to Personal Products Co.), Adsorbent epoxy foams cured with JEFFAMINE®
May 2, 1985. amines are produced by addition of a blowing
agent at gelation.
517 4,533,713 US Howells; Richard D., (for 3M), August Fluoroaliphaticsulfonamides containing oxirane
6, 1985 groups and/or N-.beta.-hydroxyalkylene groups
518 4,675,374 US G. Nichols, June 23, 1987. A copolymer from an amine or amine derivative
with a mixture of epoxies and di- or polyacrylates
sets at room temperature and can be used as an
adhesive or for coating, sealing, or molding.
519 4,684,710 US Schimmel; Karl F.; Ward; Thomas A. ; Half-amide reaction products of dioxalates and
Seiner; Jerome A (for PPG Industries, amino group containing materials
Inc.), August 4, 1987




97
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
520 4,826,930 US R. L. Zimmerman, H. G. Waddill, and New epoxy curatives were produced by
G. P. Speranza (to Texaco Chemical condensing JEFFAMINE® amines with 1,3,5-
Company), May 2, 1989. triaminotriazine in the presence of supported acid
catalysts.
521 4,847,395 US Deguchi; Yoshikuni; Iwakiri; Hiroshi; Glycidyl compounds
Iwamoto; Kazunari; Yonezawa;
Kazuya (for Kanegafuchi Kagaku
Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha), July 11,
1989
522 4,847,417 US J. Larkin (to Texaco Inc.), July 11, Bis(diaminopolyalkoxy)-N-alkylamines prepared
1989. by aminating an alkoxylated tertiary amine are
useful as reactants with epoxy resins,
isocyanates, and dimer acids.
523 4,927,912 US Speranza; George P.; Lin; Jiang-Jen; Secondary isopropyl amines derived from
Templeton; James H. (for Texaco oxyalkylene triamines
Chemical Co), May 22, 1990
524 4,992,590 US Michael Cuscurida, John M. Larkin, High molecular weight polyoxyalkyleneamines
Kathy B. Sellstrom, and Robert A. prepared by aminating oxyalkylated
Grigsby, Jr. (to Texaco Chemical polyetheramines are used as additives in epoxy
Company), February 12, 1991. resin formulations and as co-reactants with
isocyanates in polyurea systems.
525 4,996,294 US Cuscurida; Michael; Su; Wei-Yang; Preparation of aminotetramines
Speranza; George P. (for Texaco
Chemical Co), February 26, 1991
526 5,010,161 US Speranza, Michael; Lin, Jiang-Jen ; Process for preparing novel diamines
Cuscurida; Michael (for Texaco Inc),
April 23, 1991
527 5,024,698 US R. J. Schwartz and M. Z. Gregorio (to Monoazo pigments with improved properties are
Sun Chemical Corporation), June 18, produced using azomethine couplers prepared
1991. from JEFFAMINE® M-series
polyethermonoamines and acetoacetanilide.
528 5,049,281 US Robert C. Schucker (to Exxon An epoxy-terminated prepolymer prepared with
Research and Engineering Co.), JEFFAMINE® DU-700 is used in a multiblock
September 17, 1991. polymer membrane which exhibits good
selectivity to aromatics from a hydrocarbon feed.
529 5,062,894 US R. J. Schwartz, A. C. Zwirgzdas, and Storage-stable printing inks containing pigments
T. R. Chamberlain (to Sun Chemical prepared with JEFFAMINE® M-2070 offer lower
Corporation), November 5, 1991. viscosity than those containing pigments
prepared with other amines.
530 5,068,306 US R. F. Harris and M. D. Joseph (to Dow A process for preparing aminophenyl derivatives
Chemical Company), November 26, of polyetheramines under conditions to minimize
1991. formation of urea carboxylates is disclosed.
JEFFAMINE® D-2000 is used as an example,
531 5,093,528 US Dobson; Ian D.; Froom; Simon F. T. Process for the production of secondary amine
(for BP Chemicals Ltd), March 3, 1992 terminated polyethers and their use
532 5,097,070 US Lin; Jiang-Jen; Speranza; George P. High molecular weight trifunctional
(for Texaco Chemical Co), March 17, polyoxyethylene amines
1992




98
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
533 5,112,364 US Oppenlaender Knut; Schoenleben Gasoline-Engine Fuels Containing
Willibald; Mach Helmut; Rath Hans P; Polyetheramines Or Polyetheramine Derivatives
Vogel Hans-Henning (for BASF AG)
May 12, 1992
534 5,140,068 US Siebert; Alan R.; Bertsch; Robert J. Epoxy resin systems modified with low viscosity
(for The BF Goodrich Corp Co), statistical monofunctional reactive polymers
August 18, 1992
535 5,145,949 US Yamaguchi; Keizaburo; Tanabe; Production process for making aromatic amine
Yoshimitsu; Urakami; Tatsuhiro; resins
Yamaguchi; Akihiro; Yamaya;
Norimasa; Ohta; Masahiro (for Mitsui
Toatsu Chemical Inc), September 8,
1992
536 5,153,232 US Primeaux, II; Dudley J. (for Texaco, Foamed polyurea elastomer-rigid and close-
Inc), October 6, 1992 celled
537 5,157,077 US Siebert; Alan R.; Bertsch; Robert J.; Epoxy resin systems modified with statistical
Guiley; C. Dale (for The BF Goodrich monofunctional reactive polymers
Corp), October 20, 1992
538 5,171,769 US Bull; Christopher H.; Martin; Richard Filled thixotropic resin compositions comprising
J., (for Ciba-Geigy Corp), December epoxy resin, curing agent, sugar-aldehyde and
15, 1992 filler
539 5,204,208 US Paine; Anthony J.; Martin; Trevor I.; Processes for custom color encapsulated toner
Martins; Lurdes M.; Moffat; Karen A; compositions
Mychajlowskij; Walter, (for Xerox
Corp), April 20, 1993
540 5,280,068 US Siebert; Alan R.; Bertsch; Robert J. Epoxy resin systems modified with low viscosity
(for The BF Goodrich Corp), January statistical monofunctional reactive polymers
18, 1994
541 5,298,618 US Speranza; George P.; Champion; Macrocyclic oxamides
Donald H.; Plishka; Martin J. (for
Texaco Chemical Co), March 29, 1994
542 5,310,789 US Furihata; Toshikazu; Tomoshige; Toru Vinyl halide resin with epoxy resin and polyamine
(for Mitsui Petrochemical Industries
Inc), May 10, 1994
543 5,344,852 US Brooks; Gary T.; Edwards, Jr.; Harold Unsaturated polyester-polyurethane hybrid resin
R.; Thrash; Kathy J.; Rubis; Donald E.; foam compositions
Sinclair; David P. (for Aristech
Chemical Corp), September 6, 1994
544 5,389,430 US Yilgor; Iskender; Yilgor; Eme (for Th. Textiles coated with waterproof, moisture vapor
Goldschmidt AG) February 14, 1995 permeable polymers
545 5,414,123 US Hamilton; R. Scott; Lund; Gary K.; Polyether compounds having both imine and
Hajik; Robert M. (for Thiokol Corp) hydroxyl functionality and methods of synthesis
May 9, 1995
546 5,470,605 US Lundeen; Richard H. (for 3M), Universal adhesion promoting composition for
November 28, 1995 plastics repair, kit including same, and method of
use
547 5,492,550 US Krishnan; Subramanian; Miller; Surface treating articles and methods of making
Eugene J.; Donovan; Mary B.; same
Janochoski; Ramona M.; Couvelard;
Caroline (for 3M) February 20, 1996



99
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
548 5,539,023 US Dreischhoff; Dieter; Geisler; Joerg- Curing agents for aqueous epoxy resin
Peter; Godau; Claus; Hoenel; Michael; dispersions
Stengel-Rutkowski; Bernhard (for
Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft) July 23,
1996
549 5,660,601 US Guenther Wolfgang; Oppenlaender Polyetheramine-containing fuels for gasoline
Knut; Becker Rainer; Henkes Erhard; engines
Henne Andreas; Reif Wolfgang;
Menger Volkmar; Schwahn Harald;
Thomas Juergen (for BASF AG)
August 26, 1997
550 5,744,574 US Ezzell; Stephen A.; Hansen; Richard Isomaleimides and polymers derived there from
G.; Anderson; Gregory J. (for 3M) April
28, 1998
551 5,777,033 US Venkataswamy; Krishna; Abdou- Co-cured rubber-thermoplastic elastomer
Sabet; Sabet; Patel; Raman; Horrion; compositions
Jacques (for Advanced Elastomer
Systems LP) July 7, 1998
552 5,853,886 US Pinnavaia; Thomas J.; Lan; Tie (for Hybrid nanocomposites comprising layered
Claytec Inc) December 29, 1998 inorganic material and methods of preparation
553 5,869,581 US Tysak; Theodore (for Rohm and Haas Aqueous polish compositions containing acid-
Co) February 9, 1999 amine latexes
554 6,005,052 US Venkataswamy; Krishna; Chmielewski; Staged condensation, dynamic vulcanization
Craig Allen (for Advanced Elastomer process for making a substantially unplasticized
Systems LP) December 21, 1999 plastic/rubber blend

555 6,017,632 US Pinnavaia; Thomas J; Lan; Tie (for Hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites and
Claytec Inc) January 25, 2000 methods of preparation
556 6,060,625 US Lambert Timothy L; Su Wei-Yang; Process for the production of etheramine
Mckinney Mike W; Marquis Edward T alkoxylates
(for Huntsman Specialty Chemical
Corp) May 9, 2000
557 6,096,803 US Pinnavaia; Thomas J.; Lan; Tie (for Methods of preparation of organic-inorganic
Claytec Inc) August 1, 2000 hybrid nanocomposites
558 6,132,835 US Scholz; Matthew T.; Edgar; Jason L.; Composite casting tape
Callinan; Andrew J.; Ersfeld; Dean A.;
Mindaye; Worku A.; Mahler, Jr.;
Andrew J. (for 3M Co) October 17,
2000
559 6,261,640 US Pinnavaia; Thomas J.; Wang; Zhen Method for the preparation of homostructured
(for The Board of Trustees Operating mixed proton and organic layered silicates
Michigan State University) July 17,
2001
560 6,365,079 US Berry Tricia S; Winkler Marie S; Process for preparing starch and epoxy-based
Kirkpatrick Donald E (for Dow thermoplastic polymer compositions
Chemical) April 2, 2002
561 6,458,172 US Macduff Malcolm G J; Mcatee Rodney Fuel additive compositions and fuel compositions
J; Arters David C; Jackson Mitchell M containing detergents and fluidizers
(for Lubrizol Corp) October 1, 2002




100
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
562 CA2038635 CA Speranza, GP; Su, W-Y (for Texaco Polyether amide from Tetraethylene Glycol
Chemical) October 11, 1991 Diamine and Terephthalic Acid
563 CA2038642 CA Speranza, GP; Su, W-Y (for Texaco Nylon-6 Modified with Low Molecular Weight
Chemical) October 11, 1991 Polyethylene Diamines
564 CA2372226 CA Berry Tricia S; Winkler Marie S; Process For Preparing Starch And Epoxy-Based
Kirkpatrick Donald E (for Dow Thermoplastic Polymer Compositions
Chemical Co) November 23, 2000
565 DE10050710 DE Hees Ulrike; Kohl Albert; Kress Ria; Polyurethane, useful for the production of
Bohrmann Hans-Guenther; Raether magnetic recording media, has an anionic anchor
Benedikt (for EMTEC Magnetics group which is covalently bonded to a nitrogen
GmbH) April 25, 2002 atom containing polyether segment in the
polyurethane.
566 EP0343486 EP Gerkin RM; Kirchner, DL (for Union Process for the manufacture of n-(polyoxyalkyl)-n-
Carbide Corp) November 29, 1989 (alkyl)amines
567 JP1110595 JP Deiitaa Furantsu; Kararanmuposu Polyetheramine-Containing Fuel For Otto Motor
Guusechisu; Kurausu Peetaa Yakobu;
Herumuuto Matsuha; Hansu Peetaa
Raato; Kurausu Shiyutaruke (for BASF
AG) April 7, 1998
568 JP2174750 JP Haiko Funberuto; Deetorefu, Heru (for Secondary Polyetheramine, Preparation Thereof
RWE DEA AG) July 6, 1990 And Preparation of Polyurethane There from In
The Absence Of Catalyst
569 JP8081563 JP Matsutohiasu, Kururu; Mitsuhiyaeru, Reaction Product Of Alpha, Beta-Unsaturated
Fuoisteru (for Hoechst AG) March 26, Dicarboxylic Acidpolymer With Polyetheramine
1996
570 MXP0200098 MXP Hahn, Stephen F (for Dow Chemical Hydrogenated Block Copolymers having Elasticity
1 Co) July 30, 2002 and Articles Made There from
571 MXP0200231 MXP Schmidt, Dale C (for Dow Chemical Aqueous Solution or Dispersion on an Acid Salt
2 Co) July 30, 2002 of a Polyetheramine
572 WO0066538 WO Lambert Timothy L; Su Wei-Yang; Process For The Production Of Etheramine
Mckinney Mike W; Marquis Edward T Alkoxylates
(for Huntsman Specialty Chemical
Corp) November 9, 2000
573 WO0069960 WO Berry Tricia S; Winkler Marie S; Process For Preparing Starch And Epoxy-Based
Kirkpatrick Donald E (for Dow Thermoplastic Polymer Compositions
Chemical) November 23, 2000
574 WO9319111 Akhtar Masud, September 30, 1993 Film Of Polyreactive Matrix And Halocarbon
Compound
575 M. L. Myrick, S. M. Angel, R. E. Lyon, Reaction of an epoxy resin with JEFFAMINE® T-
and T. M. Vess, S.A.M.P.E. Journal, 403 was monitored using Raman spectroscopy.
28(4), 37-42.
576 F. M. Kong, D. M. Hoffman, and R. J. Certain structure-property relations for DGEBA
Morgan, Org. Coat. Appl. Polym. Sci. epoxies cured with JEFFAMINE® T-403 are
Proc., 46,599 (1981). discussed. Flow properties are emphasized.
577 S. C. Kunz, J. A. Sayre, and R. A. Morphology and toughness characterization of
Assink, Polymer, 23, 1897 (1982). epoxy resins cured with JEFFAMINE® T-403 and
modified with amine- and carboxyl- terminated
rubbers are described.
578 F. M. Kong, C. M. Walkup, and R. J. Properties of JEFFAMINE® T-403-cured DGEBA
Morgan, ACS Symp. Ser, 221 (1983). epoxy resins were at their maximum when
stoichiometric amounts of reactants were used.


101
16. Bibliography ÔÇ? JEFFAMINE┬« Polyetheramine Applications

Ref Patent # Country Author/Company or Description
Publication/Date
579 J. A. Sayre, S. C. Kunz, and R. A. The effect of cross-link density of the rubber
Assink, Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng., 49, phase on toughness of rubber-modified epoxies
442 (1983). is discussed. JEFFAMINE® T-403 is the curing
agent.
580 R. J. Morgan, F. M. Kong, and C. M. Continued studies regarding structure-property
Walkup, Polymer, 25(3), 375 (1984). relations of JEFFAMINE® T-403-cured epoxy
resins.
581 Wu and Bauer, Macromolecules 1986, Neutron-scattering studies of epoxy resin
19,1613-8. networks cured with JEFFAMINE®
polyetheramines were conducted.
582 Kathy B. Sellstrom, "New Epoxy A new JEFFAMINE® epoxy curing agent is
Curatives: Polyethylene Glycol introduced. This product offers the strength and
Diamines," presented at SPI/Epoxy flexibility typical of the JEFFAMINE® products; in
Resin Formulators Division spring addition, it is considerably more reactive than the
conference, Monterey, Calif., February JEFFAMINE® polyoxypropyleneamines.
25-27, 1987.
583 Wu and Bauer, Macromolecules Small-angle neutron scattering was used to
1988,21, 457-64. determine distance between cross-links in
deformation of epoxy systems cured with
JEFFAMINE® polyetheramines.
584 Wu, Hunston, Yang, and Stein, Network structures of epoxy resins cured with
Macromolecules 1988, 21, 756-64. JEFFAMINE® D-series amines are determined
by neutron scattering studies of cured epoxies
swollen in a deteriated solvent.
585 I. D. Dobson, P. S. Williams, and W. A. Polyetheramines for use in polyureas are
Lidy (to BP Chemicals, Ltd.), European produced using a catalyst composition of nickel,
Patent 284,398, September 28, 1988. ruthenium, and at least one other nickel.

586 V. Rao and L. T. Drzal, J. Adhes. Study shows no curing agent loss during cure of
1991, 35(4), 245-9. thin films with JEFFAMINE® T-403 or DIJ-700.
587 E. S. Oganesyan, V. F. Klusevich, A. Cross-linking an epoxy resin with a
S. BGBin, G. 1. Martysheva, and D. K. polyoxypropyleneamine and a
Kulev, Plast. Massy 1991, (6), 62-3. polyethylenepolyamine results in a cured polymer
with improved strength and satisfactory
flammability.
588 Libor Matejka, Polym. Bull. (Berlin) Curing and gelation of an epoxy resin with
1991, 26(l), 109-16. JEFFAMINE® D-400 were followed using
dynamic mechanical measurements.
589 Herbert R. Gillis and Malcolm Hannaby Triamines prepared from JEFFAMINE® T-5000
(to ICI Americas, Inc.), U.S. Patent and methyl ethyl ketone are used in preparation
4,983,659, January 8, 1991. of a polyurea by reaction injection molding.
590 Christian G'Sell and Gregory B. JEFFAMINE® D-230 and D-400 are used in
McKenna, Polymer 1992, 33(10) 2103- studies on the influence of physical aging on the
13. yield response of model epoxy glasses.




102
Additional Literature
FOR MORE LITERATURE OR INFORMATION
Please call the nearest Huntsman Corporation office.

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For transportation emergencies only, call CHEMTREC 1-800-424-9300. For all other emergencies, call 409-722-
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Important disclaimers and warnings: Data provided in this document is to be considered as representative of current production generally and
not as specifications. While all the data presented in this document is believed to be reliable, Texaco Additive Company and Texaco Chemical
Company make no representations, guarantees, or warranties, express or implied, including but not limited to any implied warranty of
merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, or as to the correctness or sufficiency of data herein presented. Each user should conduct a
sufficient investigation to establish the fitness of any product for its intended purpose. Products may be toxic and require special precautions in
handling. For all products listed, user should obtain detailed information on toxicity, together with proper shipping, handling, and storage
procedures, and comply with all applicable safety and environmental standards, regulations, and laws.

JEFFAMINE® is a registered trademark of Huntsman Corporation or an affiliate thereof in one or more, but not all countries.

┬ę Copyright 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998, 2004, Huntsman Corporation
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