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MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
CAS

64742-81-0

File Name: whitakeroil_com---273926.asp
                                                              1-K Kerosine
Material Safety Data Sheet
CITGO Petroleum Corporation
19017
MSDS No.
1701 Golf Road, Suite 1-1101
Hazard Rankings
Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-4295
Revision Date 07/31/1999
HMIS NFPA
IMPORTANT: Read this MSDS before handling or disposing of this product and pass this information on to 2 0
Health Hazard *
employees, customers and users of this product.
2 2
Fire Hazard
Emergency Overview 0
Reactivity 0
Liquid.
Physical State
* = Chronic Health Hazard
Transparent, colorless. Characteristic, kerosene-like.
Color Odor
WARNING! Combustible liquid; vapor may cause flash fire! Protective Equipment
Do not fill containers which previously contained flammable liquids!
Minimum Requirements
Do not fill any portable container in or on a vehicle!
See Section 8 for Details
Static sparks can ignite flammable vapor residues.
Mist or vapor may irritate the eyes, mucous membranes, and
respiratory tract!
Liquid contact may cause minimal to mild eye and/or
moderate to severe skin irritation and inflammation!
Based upon laboratory animal studies, may cause skin cancer
following extended contact!
May be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin!
Overexposures may cause central nervous system (CNS) depression
and/or other target organ effects!
If used as fuel, its engine exhaust may cause upper respiratory
tract irritation and reversible pulmonary effects!
May be harmful or fatal if ingested!
Aspiration into the lungs can cause pulmonary edema and
lipoid or chemical pneumonia!
Based upon animal testing, may adversely affect reproduction!
Spills may create a slipping hazard!

SECTION 1: IDENTIFICATION
(800) 967-7601
Trade Name 1-K Kerosine Technical Contact
(8am - 4pm CT M-F)
(918) 495-4700
Product Number 2017 Medical Emergency

64742-81-0, 64742-47-8, or 8008-20-6 (800) 424-9300
CAS Number CHEMTREC Emergency

Petroleum Hydrocarbon Middle Distillate
Product Family

K-1 Fuel Oil; Low-Sulfur Kerosine or Kerosene; Low-Sulfur No. 1 Fuel; Lamp Oil;
Synonyms
Light HDS Distillate; Light Hydrotreated Kerosene; Light Middle Distillate; C8-C12 Petroleum Hydrocarbons.


SECTION 2: COMPOSITION
Concentration (%)
Component Name(s) CAS Registry No.
1) Hydrodesulfurized Kerosine (Petroleum) 64742-81-0 0-100
2) Hydrotreated Light Distillate (Petroleum) 64742-47-8 0-100
3) Xylene, Mixed Isomers 1330-20-7 0.1-3
4) Nonanes Mixture 10-23
5) C10 Alkanes, Isoparaffins, and Cycloalkanes Mixture 13-49
6) C11 Alkanes, Isoparaffins, and Cycloalkanes Mixture 12-16
7) C12 Alkanes, Isoparaffins, and Cycloalkanes Mixture 0-53

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1-K Kerosine



SECTION 3: HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
Also see Emergency Overview and Hazard Ratings on the top of Page 1 of this MSDS.

Major Route(s) of Entry Skin Contact. Eye Contact. Absorption. Inhalation.
Signs and Symptoms of Acute Exposure

Breathing high concentrations of vapor may cause respiratory irritation, euphoria, excitation or giddiness,
Inhalation
headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, fatigue, muscular weakness, staggering
gait, and central nervous system (CNS) depression. CNS effects include dizziness, drowsiness,
disorientation, vertigo, memory loss, visual disturbances, difficulty with breathing, convulsions,
unconsciousness, paralysis, coma, and even death, depending upon level of exposure concentration
and/or duration. Vapors can reduce the oxygen content in air. Approximately 20,000 ppm (or 2 vol.%) in
air is fatal to humans in 5 to 10 minutes. Sudden death from cardiac arrest (heart attack) may result from
exposure to 5,000 ppm for only 5 minutes. Oxygen deprivation is possible if working in confined spaces.
Animal test results on similar materials suggest that this product can cause minimal to mild eye irritation
Eye Contact
upon short-term exposure. Symptoms include stinging, watering, redness, and swelling.
Animal test results on similar materials suggest that this product can cause moderate to severe skin
Skin Contact
irritation. Short-term contact symptoms include redness, itching, and burning of the skin. This material
may also be absorbed through the skin and produce CNS depression effects (see "Inhalation" above). If
the skin is damaged, absorption increases. Prolonged and/or repeated contact may cause severe
dermatitis. Chronic symptoms may include drying, swelling, scaling, blistering, cracking, and severe tissue
damage.
If swallowed, this material may irritate the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, and esophagus. It can
Ingestion
be readily absorbed by the stomach and intestinal tract. Symptoms include a burning sensation of the
mouth and esophagus, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, staggering gait, drowsiness, loss of consciousness,
and delirium, as well as additional central nervous system (CNS) effects (see "Inhalation" above).

Due to its light viscosity, there is a danger of aspiration into the lungs during vomiting. Aspiration can
result in severe lung damage or death. Progressive CNS depression, respiratory insufficiency, and
ventricular fibrillation may also result in death.
Chronic effects of ingestion and subsequent aspiration into the lungs may cause pneumatocele (lung
Chronic Health Effects
Summary cavity) formation and chronic lung dysfunction. Chronic occupational xylene exposures have caused
auditory nerve degeneration.

Based upon animal testing, the xylenes component might be assumed to cause embryo and fetal toxicity,
spontaneous abortions, and/or decreased fetal and newborn weights if overexposures occur during a
woman's early gestation period.

People chronically exposed to jet fuel (similar to hydrodesulfurized kerosine) at an average concentration
of 250 mg/m3 (~ 85 ppm) in air for 4 to 32 years showed higher incidence of neuropsychiatric symptoms
than unexposed persons. Symptoms included anxiety, sleep disturbances, irritability, attention deficits,
memory impairment, depression, fatique, mood and personality changes, and neurasthenic syndrome.
Also, reports have associated repeated and prolonged occupational overexposure to similar solvents with
irreversible brain and nervous system damage (sometimes referred to as "Solvent or Painter's Syndrome").

This product contains hydrodesulfurized kerosine and/or hydrotreated light distillate which are middle
distillates similar to those shown to produce skin tumors on laboratory animals following repeated
applications. All tumors appeared at the site of application during the latter portion of the typical 2-year
lifespan of the animals. Toxic effects are unlikely to occur if good personal hygiene is practiced. (See
Section 11.)
Personnel with pre-existing central nervous system (CNS) disease, neurological conditions, skin disorders,
Conditions Aggravated
by Exposure impaired hearing, liver, or kidney function, or chronic respiratory diseases, and women attempting to
conceive should avoid exposure.
This substance is toxic to lungs, central nervous system, brain, mucous membranes, skin, eyes, and
Target Organs
possibly, the liver, kidneys, and reproductive system.
This product contains middle distillates at above 0.1% and it is considered carcinogenic by IARC and
Carcinogenic Potential
NTP. (See Section 11.)




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1-K Kerosine

OSHA Hazard Classification is indicated by an "X" in the box adjacent to the hazard title. If no "X" is present, the product does not exhibit the
hazard as defined in the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200).

OSHA Health Hazard Classification OSHA Physical Hazard Classification

X Explosive Pyrophoric
Irritant Toxic Combustible
X

Oxidizer Water-reactive
Sensitizer Highly Toxic Flammable

Carcinogenic X Organic Peroxide Unstable
Corrosive Compressed Gas




SECTION 4: FIRST AID MEASURES
Take proper precautions to ensure your own health and safety before attempting rescue or providing first aid. For more specific
information, refer to Exposure Controls and Personal Protection in Section 8 of this MSDS.
Immediately move victim to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, immediately begin rescue breathing. If
Inhalation
heart has stopped, immediately begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). If breathing is difficult, 100
percent humidified oxygen should be administered by a qualified individual. Seek medical attention
immediately.
Check for and remove contact lenses. If irritation or redness develops, flush eyes with cool, clean,
Eye Contact
low-pressure water for at least 15 minutes. Hold eyelids apart to ensure complete irrigation of the eye
and eyelid tissue. Do not use eye ointment. Seek medical attention immediately.
Remove contaminated shoes and clothing. Flush affected area with large amounts of water. If skin
Skin Contact
surface is damaged, apply a clean dressing and seek medical attention. Do not use ointments. If skin
surface is not damaged, clean affected area thoroughly with mild soap and water. Seek medical
attention if tissue appears damaged or if pain or irritation persists.
Do not induce vomiting or give anything by mouth. If spontaneous vomiting is about to occur, place
Ingestion
victim鈥檚 head below knees. If victim is drowsy or unconscious, place on the left side with head down.
Never give anything by mouth to a person who is not fully conscious. Do not leave victim unattended.
Seek medical attention immediately.
Inhalation overexposure can produce toxic effects. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or
Notes to Physician
difficulty in breathing develops, evaluate for upper respiratory tract inflammation, bronchitis, and
pneumonitis. Vigorous anti-inflammatory/steroid treatment may be required at first evidence of upper
airway or pulmonary edema. Administer 100 percent humidified supplemental oxygen with assisted
ventilation, as required.

If ingested, this material presents a significant aspiration/lipoid or chemical pneumonitis hazard. As a
result, induction of emesis is not recommended. Administer an aqueous slurry of activated charcoal
followed by a cathartic such as magnesium citrate or sorbitol. Also, treatment may involve careful
gastric lavage if performed soon after ingestion or in patients who are comatose or at risk of convulsing.
Protect the airway by cuffed endotracheal intubation or by placement of the body in a Trendelenburg
and left lateral decubitus position. Obtain chest X-ray and liver function tests. Monitor for cardiac
function, respiratory distress and arterial blood gases in severe exposure cases.


SECTION 5: FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
OSHA/NFPA Class-II Combustible Liquid. Highly combustible!
NFPA Flammability
Classification
CLOSED CUP: 59掳 to 60掳C (138掳 to 140掳F). (Tagliabue (ASTM D-56))
Flash Point Method

AP 0.7 % AP 5.0 %
Lower Flammable Limit Upper Flammable Limit

AP 210掳 to 230掳C (410掳 to 446掳F)
Autoignition Temperature

Burning or excessive heating may produce smoke, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and possibly
Hazardous
Combustion Products other harmful gases/vapors.




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1-K Kerosine

Combustible Liquid! This material releases vapors at or approaching the flash point temperature.
Special Properties
When mixed with air in certain proportions and exposed to an ignition source, its vapor can cause a
flash fire. Mists or sprays may be flammable at temperatures below the flash point. Use only with
adequate ventilation. Vapors are heavier than air and may travel long distances along the ground to an
ignition source and flash back. May create vapor/air explosion hazard in confined spaces such as
sewers. If container is not properly cooled, it can rupture in the heat of a fire.

A static electrical charge can accumulate as a result of transfer flow or agitation. Discharge (static
spark) can ignite vapors, especially in cold, dry weather conditions. Special slow load and monitoring
procedures for "switch loading" must be followed to avoid the static ignition hazard that can exist when
this material is loaded into tanks previously containing gasoline or other low flash point products. To
reduce this hazard, receiving containers should always be grounded and the loading nozzle must be
kept in contact with the container during the entire filling process. Do not fill any portable container in or
on a vehicle without proper bonding.
SMALL FIRE: Use dry chemicals, carbon dioxide (CO2), foam, water fog, or inert gas (nitrogen).
Extinguishing Media
LARGE FIRE: Use foam, water fog, or waterspray. Water fog and spray are effective in cooling
containers and adjacent structures but might cause frothing and/or may not achieve extinquishment. A
water jet may be used to cool the vessel's external walls to prevent pressure build-up, autoignition, or
explosion. NEVER use a water jet directly on the fire because it may spread the fire to a larger area.
Firefighters must use full bunker gear including NIOSH-approved positive pressure self-contained
Fire Fighting Protective
Clothing breathing apparatus to protect against potential hazardous combustion or decomposition products and
oxygen deficiencies. Evacuate area and fight the fire from a maximum distance or use unmanned hose
holders or monitor nozzles. Cover pooling liquid with foam. Containers can build pressure if exposed to
radiant heat; cool adjacent containers with flooding quantities of water until well after the fire is out.
Withdraw immediately from the area if there is a rising sound from venting safety devices or
discoloration of vessels, tanks, or pipelines. Be aware that burning liquid will float on water. Notify
appropriate authorities if liquid(s) enter sewers/waterways.


SECTION 6: ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
Take proper precautions to ensure your own health and safety before attempting spill control or clean-up. For more specific
information, refer to the Emergency Overview on Page 1, Exposure Controls and Personal Protection in Section 8 and Disposal
Considerations in Section 13 of this MSDS.
Combustible Liquid! Release causes an immediate fire or explosion hazard. Evacuate all non-essential
personnel from immediate area and establish a "regulated zone" with site control and security. A
vapor-suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Eliminate all ignition sources. All equipment
used when handling this material must be grounded. Stop the leak if it can done without risk. Do not
touch or walk through spilled material. Remove spillage immediately from hard, smooth walking areas.
Prevent its entry into waterways, sewers, basements, or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth,
sand, or other non-combustible material and transfer to appropriate waste containers. Use clean,
non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material.

For large spills, secure the area and control access. Dike far ahead of a liquid spill to ensure complete
collection. Water mist or spray may be used to reduce or disperse vapors; but, it may not prevent
ignition in closed spaces. This material will float on water and its run-off may create an explosion or fire
hazard. Verify that responders are properly HAZWOPER-trained and wearing appropriate respiratory
equipment and fire-resistant protective clothing during cleanup operations. In an urban area, cleanup
spill as soon as possible; in natural environments, cleanup on advice from specialists. Pick up free
liquid for recycle and/or disposal if it can be accomplished safely with explosion-proof equipment.
Collect any excess material with absorbant pads, sand, or other inert non-combustible absorbent
materials. Place into appropriate waste containers for later disposal. Comply with all laws and
regulations.


SECTION 7: HANDLING AND STORAGE
A spill or leak can cause an immediate fire/explosion hazard. Keep containers closed and do not
Handling
handle or store near heat, sparks, or any other potential ignition sources. Bond and ground all
equipment before transferring this material from one container to another. Do not contact with
oxidizable materials. Do not breathe vapor. Use only with adequate ventilation/personal protection.
Never siphon by mouth. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Prevent contact with food,
chewing, or smoking materials. Do not take internally.

When performing repairs and maintenance on contaminated equipment, keep unnecessary persons


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1-K Kerosine

away from the area. Eliminate all potential ignition sources. Drain and purge equipment, as necessary,
to remove material residues. Use gloves constructed of impervious materials and protective clothing if
direct contact is anticipated. Provide ventilation to maintain exposure potential below applicable
exposure limits. Promptly remove contaminated clothing. Wash exposed skin thoroughly with soap
and water after handling.

Empty containers may contain material residues which can ignite with explosive force. Misuse of empty
containers can be dangerous if used to store toxic, flammable, or reactive materials. Cutting or welding
of empty containers can cause fire, explosion, or release of toxic fumes from residues. Do not
pressurize or expose empty containers to open flame, sparks, or heat. Keep container closed and drum
bungs in place. All label warnings and precautions must be observed. Return empty drums to a
qualified reconditioner. Consult appropriate federal, state and local authorities before reusing,
reconditioning, reclaiming, recycling, or disposing of empty containers and/or waste residues of this
material.
Store and transport in accordance with all applicable laws. Keep containers tightly closed and store in a
Storage
cool, dry, well-ventilated place, plainly labeled, and out of closed vehicles. Keep away from all ignition
sources! Ground all equipment containing this material. Containers should be able to withstand
pressures expected from warming and cooling in storage. This combustible liquid should be stored in a
separate safety cabinet or room. All electrical equipment in areas where this material is stored or handled
should be installed in accordance with applicable requirements of the N.F.P.A.'s National Electical Code
(NEC).


SECTION 8: EXPOSURE CONTROLS AND PERSONAL PROTECTION
Engineering Controls Provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep the airborne concentrations of vapor
and/or mists below the pertinent exposure limits (see below). All electrical equipment should comply with
the NFPA NEC Standards. Ensure that an emergency eye wash station and safety shower are near the
work-station location.
Personal Protective Personal protective equipment should be selected based upon the conditions under which this material is
Equipment used. A hazard assessment of the work area for PPE requirements should be conducted by a qualified
professional pursuant to OSHA regulations. The following pictograms represent the minimum
requirements for personal protective equipment. For certain operations, additional PPE may be required.




Safety glasses with side shields are recommended as a minimum protection. During transfer
Eye Protection
operations or when there is a likelihood of misting, splashing, or spraying, chemical goggles and face
shield should be worn. Suitable eye wash water should be readily available.
Avoid skin contact and use gloves (disposable PVC, neoprene, nitrile, vinyl, or PVC/NBR). Before
Hand Protection
eating, drinking, smoking, use of toilet facilities, or leaving work, wash hands with plenty of mild soap
and water. DO NOT use gasoline, kerosene, other solvents, or harsh abrasive skin cleaners.
Avoid skin contact. It is recommended that fire-retardant garments (e.g. Nomex鈩?) be worn while
Body Protection
working with flammable and combustible liquids. If splashing or spraying is expected,
chemical-resistant protective clothing (Tyvek庐, nitrile, or neoprene) should be worn. This might include
long-sleeves, apron, slicker suit, boots, and additional facial protection. If general contact occurs,
IMMEDIATELY remove soaked clothing and take a shower. Contaminated leather goods should be
removed promptly and discarded.
For unknown vapor concentrations use a positive-pressure, pressure-demand, self-contained breathing
Respiratory Protection
apparatus (SCBA). For known vapor concentrations above the occupational exposure guidelines (see
below), use a NIOSH-approved organic vapor respirator if adequate protection is provided. Protection
factors vary depending upon the type of respirator used. Respirator use should follow OSHA
requirements (29 CFR 1910.134) or equivalent standard (e.g. ANSI Z88.2).
Warning! Use of hydrocarbon fuel in spaces without adequate ventilation may result in generation of
General Comments
hazardous levels of combustion products and inadequate oxygen levels for breathing. Odor is an
inadequate warning for hazardous conditions.
Occupational Exposure Guidelines

Substance Applicable Workplace Exposure Levels




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1-K Kerosine

TWA: 100 (mg/m3) from ACGIH (TLV) [Proposed for 2000] - SKIN
1) Diesel fuel/Kerosene ("A3" Animal Carcinogen)
TWA: 5 STEL: 10 (mg/m3) from ACGIH (TLV) [1999]
2) Oil mist, mineral
TWA: 5 (mg/m3) from OSHA (PEL) [1976]
3) Xylene, Mixed Isomers ("A4" = Not Classifiable) TWA: 100 STEL: 150 (ppm) from ACGIH (TLV) [1999]
TWA: 100 STEL: 150 (ppm) from OSHA (PEL) [1989]
4) Nonane, all isomers TWA: 200 (ppm) from ACGIH (TLV) [1999]
TWA: 200 (ppm) from OSHA (PEL) [1989]


SECTION 9: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Transparent, Characteristic, kerosene-like.
Odor
Color
Liquid.
Physical State
colorless.
5.6 (Air = 1)
Vapor Density
Not applicable.
0.82 (Water = 1) pH
Specific Gravity
149掳 to 305掳C -25掳 to 25掳C
Melting/Freezing Point
Boiling Point/Range
(300掳 to 581掳F) (-13掳 to -3掳F)
1.8 mm Hg at 20掳C (68掳F). 25 to 32
Vapor Pressure Viscosity (cSt @ 40掳C)

Slightly soluble in cold water (AP Volatile Characteristics Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Solubility in Water
0.04%). Content = 100%; 822 gm/L.

Additional Properties Alkane, Isoparaffin, and Cycloalkane Hydrocarbons Content = 97 to 99.9 Wt.% (ASTM D-1319);
C8-C11 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content = 0.1 to 3 Wt.% (ASTM D-1319);
Average Density at 60掳F = 6.819 lbs./gal. (ASTM D-2161);
Aniline Cloud Point Temperature = 144掳F (62掳C) (ASTM D-611);
Kauri-Butanol (KB) Value = 34 (ASTM D-1133);
Dry Point Temperature = 572掳F (300掳C) (ASTM D-86);
Evaporation Rate = 0.04 when n-Butyl acetate = 1.0;
Heat Value = 19,728 Btu.


SECTION 10: STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
Hazardous Polymerization Not expected to occur.
Stable.
Chemical Stability

Keep away from extreme heat, strong acids, and strong oxidizing conditions.
Conditions to Avoid

Strong acids, alkalies, and oxidizers such as liquid chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and oxygen.
Materials Incompatibility

No substances are readily identified from composition; and, no degradation data is available.
Hazardous
Decomposition Products


SECTION 11: TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
For other health-related information, refer to the Emergency Overview on Page 1 and the Hazards Identification in Section 3 of this
MSDS.
Toxicity Data Kerosine:
ORAL (LD50): Acute: GT 5,000 mg/kg [Rat screen] - Diarrhea, hypoactivity, and somnolence.
ORAL (LD50): Acute: 2,835 mg/kg [Rabbit] - Respiratory stimulation and muscle weakness.
ORAL (LD50): Acute: 20 mg/kg [Guinea Pig] - Respiratory stimulation and muscle weakness.
INTRAVENOUS (LD50): Acute: 180 mg/kg [Rabbit] - Respiratory stimulation, tremors, and
coma.
INTRATRACHEAL (LD50): Acute: 800 mg/kg [Rat] - Convulsions, dyspnea, and cyanosis.
INTRATRACHEAL (LD50): Acute: 200 mg/kg [Rabbit] - Convulsions and cyanosis.
INTRAPERITONEAL (LD50): Acute: 6,600 mg/kg [Rabbit] - Pulmonary edema, emphysema,
and changes to the bronchi.
Hydrodesulfurized Kerosine:
ORAL (LD50): Acute: GT 5,000 mg/kg [Rat screen] - Excess salivation, diarrhea, hair loss,
hypoactivity, and somnolence.
GAS (LC50): Acute: GT 5,200 mg/L for 4 hours [Rat screen]] - Dyspnea.
DERMAL (LD50): Acute: GT 2,000 mg/kg [Rabbit screen].
Xylenes:
ORAL (LD50): Acute: 4,300 mg/kg [Rat].
GAS (LC50): Acute: 4,550 ppm for 4 hours [Rat].

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1-K Kerosine

DERMAL (LD50): Acute: 14,100 uL/kg [Rabbit].
SUBCUTANEOUS (LD50): Acute: 1,700 mg/kg [Rat].
INTRAPERITONEAL (LD50): Acute: 2,459 mg/kg [Rat].
INTRAPERITONEAL (LD50): Acute: 1,548 mg/kg [Mouse].
n-Nonane:
GAS (LC50): Acute: 3,200 ppm for 4 hours [Rat].
INTRAVENOUS (LD50): Acute: 218 mg/kg [Mouse].

Laboratory data associated some mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons with boiling ranges between
300掳 and 650掳F., commonly referred to as "middle distillates, including kerosine" have caused
increased incidence of skin tumors at the site of contact when applied repeatedly (twice per week) over
the lifetime of the test animals (12 to 24 months). A few studies have shown that washing the animal's
skin with soap and water between applications greatly reduces the carcinogenic effect of these middle
distillates. Kerosine has not been identified as a carcinogen by IARC, NTP, or OSHA. These similar
materials have also been associated with liver and kidney damage in subchronic (90-day) inhalation
studies with male rats.

Hydrodesulfurized kerosine, hydrotreated light distillate, and untreated (straight-run) kerosine
produced negative mutagenic responses in the Salmonella/microsome (Ames) assay, the in-vivo rat
bone marrow cell chromosome abberations assay, the in-vitro mouse lymphoma assay, and the in-vitro
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay; however, the in-vivo mouse
SCE assay and in-vitro S9-activated CHO SCE assay produced positive responses. The significance of
these animal study results to human health is unclear.

Chronic overexposure to xylene may produce irreversible damage to the central nervous system,
including ototoxicity, that can be increased by the consumption of ethanol (alcoholic drinks). Drinking
beverages which contain ethanol in conjunction with xylene exposure increases the alcoholic effects
and impairs the clearance of xylenes from the body. Xylene isomers accumulate in the adipose (fat)
tissues, from which they are slowly released. Complete clearance may take several days following
exposure.

An inhalation study with laboratory animals indicated an association of xylene with hearing loss in rats.
Several animal studies using pregnant rodents have shown that ethylbenzene and the mixed xylene
isomers (dimethylbenzenes) may all cause embryo and/or feto-toxicity. Inhalation and feeding studies
involving pregnant laboratory animals have produced limited evidence of fetal toxicity including
increased incidence of spontaneous abortions, decreased fetal weight, delayed bone development,
non-lethal abnormalities such as musculoskeletal and craniofacial variations, and reduced litter sizes.

Two-year rat and mouse gavage studies by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) on mixed xylene
isomers including 17% ethylbenzene showed "no evidence of carcinogenicity". Also, a two-year mixed
xylenes skin-painting study on shaved rats and mice showed no incidence of non-neoplastic or
neoplastic lesions. And, none of the components were mutagenic when tested in either the modified
Ames, Chinese hampster ovary cell with and without metabolic activation, or sister-chromatid
mutagenicity assays.

Rats inhaling n-nonane at an airborne concentration of 1,500 ppm for 7 days displayed mild tremors
and loss of coordination. Inhalation of 1,600 ppm for 6 hours per day for 90 days showed animal weight
loss or decreased weight gain and changes in the structure of their salivary glands. And, liver damage
and an altered response to drugs were seen in rats given n-nonane for 2 to 7 days.


SECTION 12: ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Ecological effects testing has not been conducted on this material. If spilled, this naphtha, its storage
Ecotoxicity
tank water bottoms and sludge, and any contaminated soil or water may be hazardous to human,
animal, and aquatic life. If present, volatile aromatic hydrocarbon components (xylenes) may be
released and possibly contribute to the creation of atmospheric smog.

Using Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Dungeness Crab (Cancer magister), and juvenile
American Shad (Squalius cephalus), similar kerosenes and some of this material's components showed
a 96-hour TLms (Median Toxic Limit) of from 5 ppm to 20 ppm in ambient saltwater. Also, 24-hour and
96-hour TLms produced results from 10 ppm to 200 ppm when using Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis
macrochirus), Goldfish (Carassius auratus), and Guppy (Lebistes reticulatus) in fresh water. Based
upon actual spill incident investigations, similar naphtha and kerosene mixtures have been shown to
bioaccumulate in tissues of various fish from a 1 ppm to 10 ppm levels.



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1-K Kerosine

This kerosene is potentially toxic to freshwater and saltwater ecosystems. It will normally float on water
Environmental Fate
with its lighter components evaporating rapidly. In stagnant or slow-flowing waterways, this
hydrocarbon oil layer can cover a large surface area. As a result, this covering layer might limit or
eliminate natural atmospheric oxygen transport into the water. With time, if not removed, oxygen
depletion in the waterway might be enough to cause a fish kill or create an anaerobic environment. This
coating action can also be harmful or fatal to plankton, algae, aquatic life, and water birds. Additionally,
potable water and boiler feed water systems should NEVER be allowed more than 5 ppm contamination
from this material.
For additional ecological information concerning components of this product, users should refer to the
Hazardous Substances Data Bank庐 and the Oil and Hazardous Materials/Technical Assistance Data
System (OHM/TADS) maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. (See Section 2 for
components.)


SECTION 13: DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
Hazard characteristic and regulatory waste stream classification can change with product use. Accordingly, it is the responsibility
of the user to determine the proper storage, transportation, treatment and/or disposal methodologies for spent materials and
residues at the time of disposition.
Maximize material recovery for reuse or recycling. If spilled material is introduced into a wastewater
treatment system, chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD) will likely increase. This
material is biodegradable if gradually exposed to microorganisms, preferably in an aerobic
environment. In sewage- seeded wastewater, at or below concentrations of 0.2 vol.% of this material,
there is little or no effect on bio-oxidation and/or digestion. However, at 1 vol.%, it doubles the
required digestion period. Higher concen- trations interfere with floc formation and sludge settling and
also plug filters or exchange beds. Vapor emissions from a bio-oxidation process contaminated by
this material might prove to be a health hazard.

Recovered non-usable material may be regulated by US EPA as a hazardous waste due to its
ignitibility (D001) characteristics. In addition, conditions of use may cause this material to become a
hazardous waste, as defined by Federal or State regulations. It is the responsibility of the user to
determine if the material is a RCRA "hazardous waste" at the time of disposal. Transportation,
treatment, storage, and disposal of waste material must be conducted in accordance with RCRA
regulations (see 40 CFR Parts 260 through 271). State and/or local regulations might be even more
restrictive. Contact the RCRA/Superfund Hotline at (800) 424-9346 or your regional US EPA office for
guidance concerning case specific disposal issues.


SECTION 14: TRANSPORT INFORMATION
This material is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation.
DOT Status
Kerosene
Proper Shipping Name

This product has a flash point temperature of between 100掳 and 141掳F (38掳 to 60掳C). For bulk
shipments, it is classified as a DOT "Flammable Liquid". However, according to 49 CFR 173.120(b)(2)
and 173.150(f)(1), this product may be reclassified as a "Combustible Liquid" and exempted from
certain transportation-related requirements, such as labeling, when shipped in non-bulk
"limited-quantity" containers of less than 119 gallons capacity. According to 49 CFR 173.150(f)(2) and
(3), this provision does not apply to "limited-quantities" offered for or transported via vessel or aircraft or
products which are defined as DOT "Marine Pollutants". It is recommended that "Flammable Liquid"
products which are reclassified be so identified on the bill-of-lading as "Combustible liquid, n.o.s.
(Kerosene) or (Nonanes, Xylenes)" with identification number "NA1993".

Class 3: Flammable liquid.
Hazard Class PG III
Packing Group(s)
UN1223 or NA1993
UN/NA ID
Reportable Quantity If present, the Reportable Quantity (RQ) substance component in this product which requires DOT
HAZMAT bill-of-lading display is Xylenes.




MSDS No. Revision Date 07/31/1999
19017 Page Number: 8
Continued on Next Page
1-K Kerosine

128
Emergency Response Guide
Placards No.
49 122 71
HAZMAT STCC No.

Not a DOT "Marine Pollutant"
MARPOL III Status
per 49 CFR 171.8.




SECTION 15: REGULATORY INFORMATION
This product and/or its components are listed on the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) inventory.
TSCA Inventory

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) Title III requires facilities subject
SARA 302/304
to Subparts 302 and 304 to submit emergency planning and notification information based on Threshold
Planning Quantities (TPQs) and Reportable Quantities (RQs) for "Extremely Hazardous Substances"
listed in 40 CFR 302.4 and 40 CFR 355. No components were identified.
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1989 (SARA) Title III requires facilities subject
SARA 311/312
to this subpart to submit aggregate information on chemicals by "Hazard Category" as defined in 40
CFR 370.2. This material would be classified under the following hazard categories:
Fire Hazard, Acute (Immediate) Health Hazard, and Chronic (Delayed) Health Hazard.
This product contains the following component in concentrations which might be at or above de minimis
SARA 313
levels and is listed as a toxic chemical in 40 CFR Part 372 pursuant to the requirements of Section 313:
Xylenes [CAS No. 1330-20-7] concentration: 0.1 to 3%.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA)
CERCLA
requires notification of the National Response Center concerning release of quantities of "hazardous
substances" equal to or greater than the reportable quantities (RQ's) listed in 40 CFR 302.4. As defined
by CERCLA, the term "hazardous substance" does not include petroleum, including crude oil or any
fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically designated in 40 CFR 302.4. Chemical substances
present in this product or refinery stream subject to this statute are:
Toluene [CAS No. 108-88-3] (RQ = 1000 lbs. [453.6 kg]) concentration: 0.0001 to 0.001%
Xylenes [CAS No. 1330-20-7] (RQ = 100 lbs. [45.36 kg]) concentration: 0.1 to 3%
Ethylbenzene [CAS No. 100-41-4] (RQ = 1000 lbs. [453.6 kg]) concentration: 0 to 0.222%.
This material is classified as an oil under Section 311 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Oil
CWA
Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA). Discharges or spills which produce a visible sheen on waters of the United
States, their adjoining shorelines, or into conduits leading to surface waters must be reported to the
EPA's National Response Center at (800) 424-8802.
This material might contain the following chemical substance which is known to the State of California to
California
Proposition 65 cause birth defects or other reproductive harm; and therefore, it may be subject to requirements of
California Health & Safety Code Section 25249.5: Toluene [CAS No. 108-88-3].
For New Jersey labeling refer to components listed in Section 2.
New Jersey
Right-to-Know Label

Under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act, related statutes, and Consumer Product Safety
Additional Regulatory
Remarks Commission regulations, as defined by 16 CFR 1500.14(b)(3) and 1500.83(a)(13): This product
contains "Petroleum Distillates" which may require special labeling if distributed in a manner intended or
packaged in a from suitable for use in the household or by children. Precautionary label dialogue
should display the following: Contains Petroleum Distillates! May be harmful or fatal if swallowed!
Keep Out of Reach of Children!
Under Section 12(b) of TSCA: Because it contains detectable amounts of C9 Aromatic Hydrocarbons,
this product might be subject to US EPA's one-time only per country export notification requirements.

In regulations promulgated pursuant to the Clean Air Act - Section 111 "Standards of Performance for
New Stationary Sources" (40 CFR 60.489), the EPA classifies the following components of this material
as "Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)" which contribute significantly to air pollution which endangers
public health and welfare": Toluene [CAS No. 108-88-3], Xylenes (mixed) [CAS No. 1330-20-7], and
Ethylbenzene [CAS No. 100-41-4].




MSDS No. Revision Date 07/31/1999
19017 Page Number: 9
Continued on Next Page
1-K Kerosine



SECTION 16: OTHER INFORMATION
Refer to the top of Page 1 for the HMIS and NFPA Hazard Ratings for this product.
REVISION INFORMATION
2.1
Version Number
07/31/1999
Revision Date
Printed on 04/27/2000.
Print Date
ABBREVIATIONS

AP = Approximately EQ = Equal GT = Greater Than LT = Less Than NA = Not Applicable ND = No Data NE = Not
Established
ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists AIHA = American Industrial Hygiene Association
IARC = International Agency for Research on Cancer NTP = National Toxicology Program
NIOSH = National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health OSHA = Occupational Safety and Health Administration
NPCA = National Paint and Coating Manufacturers Association HMIS = Hazardous Materials Information System
NFPA = National Fire Protection Association EPA = Environmental Protection Agency
DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY

THE INFORMATION IN THIS MSDS WAS OBTAINED FROM SOURCES WHICH WE BELIEVE ARE RELIABLE. HOWEVER, THE
INFORMATION IS PROVIDED WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED REGARDING ITS CORRECTNESS. SOME
INFORMATION PRESENTED AND CONCLUSIONS DRAWN HEREIN ARE FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN DIRECT TEST DATA ON THE
SUBSTANCE ITSELF. THIS MSDS WAS PREPARED AND IS TO BE USED ONLY FOR THIS PRODUCT. IF THE PRODUCT IS USED AS
A COMPONENT IN ANOTHER PRODUCT, THIS MSDS INFORMATION MAY NOT BE APPLICABLE. USERS SHOULD MAKE THEIR
OWN INVESTIGATIONS TO DETERMINE THE SUITABILITY OF THE INFORMATION OR PRODUCTS FOR THEIR PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.

THE CONDITIONS OR METHODS OF HANDLING, STORAGE, USE, AND DISPOSAL OF THE PRODUCT ARE BEYOND OUR CONTROL
AND MAY BE BEYOND OUR KNOWLEDGE. FOR THIS AND OTHER REASONS, WE DO NOT ASSUME RESPONSIBILITY AND
EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM LIABILITY FOR LOSS, DAMAGE OR EXPENSE ARISING OUT OF OR IN ANY WAY CONNECTED WITH
HANDLING, STORAGE, USE OR DISPOSAL OF THE PRODUCT.

***** END OF MSDS *****

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